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AIOU B.Ed Solved assignment Professionalism in Teaching (8612) Assignment 02

 AIOU B.Ed Solved assignment  Professionalism in Teaching (8612)  Assignment 02



Q.1: Write a detailed note on professional identity of teacher. (20)Marks


Ans: Detailed note on professional identity of teacher:

                         Meaning of Professional Identity

a)  Gecas (1982) defined identities as the various meanings that are attached to a person by themselves and others.

b)  Professional identity is defined as one’s professional self- concept based on attributes, beliefs, values, motives, and experiences (Ibarra, 1999: as cited in Slay & Smith, 2011).

c)           A professional identity is an important cognitive mechanism that affects workers’ attitudes, affect and behaviors in work settings and professional life (Caza & Creary, 2016).

d)     Professional identities can also be seen as a social identity of a person within the group of the professionals who share a common approach to

a particular type of work (Van Maanen and Barley, 1984: as cited in Caza &Creary, 2016).


                           Importance of Professional Identity

a)     A professional identity affects individual behavior and   psychological well-being in the workplace.

b)    Individuals’ professional identities determined their moral decision making i.e., decisions related to dos and don'ts, good and bad.

c)     Professional identification contributes to have positive

performance outcomes such as career success.

d)    Professional identity plays an important role in shaping both psychological processes in the workplace.

e)     A positive self-concept about professional identity can protect a person from depression and anxiety.


               Development of Professional Identity Professional   identity development can be used to make sense of experiences, practice and work (Nyström, 2009). Professional identity development shapes and is   shaped   by   work-integrated   learning experiences. Campbell and Zegwaard   (2011)   affirmed   that universities/teacher education institutions play a key role in assisting students to navigate through workplace experiences. Luehmann (2007) described five necessary processes in the development of a professional identity as a reformed educator, including

(1)    reconciling prior beliefs with teaching,


(2)    locating identity within a community of practice


(3)    managing emotional aspects of identity formation


(4)    integrating experiences and theory of teaching profession


(5)    developing a sense of self-confidence. Joanna Gilmore, Melisa Hurst and Michelle Maher (2009) described the work of Fuller and Bown (Fuller, 1969; Fuller & Bown, 1975) about teacher identity development. This view proposes that teachers undergo a series of four developmental stages characterized by unique concerns.

a)                                                               In the first stage, Fantasy, which occurs prior to actual teaching, prospective teachers romanticize about the experience ahead. At this stage, the preservice teacher can better identify with the students' perspective than the teachers. Thus, students in this stage are often overly critical of their own teachers, or of teachers who they observe during early experiences in classroom/school.

b)        The Survival stage begins after entering the classroom and encountering a crisis usually related to classroom management or mastery of content. During this stage, the teacher struggles to achieve a sense of worth and identity. This struggle usually translates into concerns about class control, being liked by students and/or evaluation from other educators and administrators.

c)    The third stage, Mastery, occurs as teachers begin to develop mastery over their content and pedagogical knowledge adaptable to different situations. The teacher, in this stage, is able to engage in more systematic reflection about their instructional practices. At this stage, teacher focuses on the teacher's own performance, not on indicators of student learning.

d)     In the Impact stage, the teacher is better able to focus on individual students and their needs. Instead of being concerned about the evaluation of others, he or she is mostly concerned with selfevaluation. Professional identity is closely linked to professionalism which is taking responsibility for one’s action. So, thinking and acting as a professional are underpinned by professionalism and a sense of professional identity.

Q.2:Discuss “Right to Education” in national and international context.         (20) Marks



Ans: “Right to Education” in international context:


After the adaptation of the Universal Education of Human Rights in 1948, education has been considered as a basic human right. Many international treaties also affirmed this right e.g. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Convention against Discrimination in Education (1960), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) (1966) and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1981). These treaties advocated following recommendation;

a.        free and compulsory primary education of all children

b.        a responsible approach towards developing secondary education accessible for all children and equitable access to higher education c. provision of basic education for those who have missed the chance of primary education According to the Article 13

(1) of the ICESCR:


“The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to education. They agree that education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and the sense of its dignity, and shall strengthen the respect for human rights and

fundamental freedoms. They further agree that education shall enable all persons to participate effectively in a free society, promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations and all racial, ethnic or religious groups, and further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace”(Lee, n.d.pp;02)

Similarly Article 28


(1) of the Convention on Rights of Children (CRC)stipulates;


States Parties recognize the right of the child to education, and with a view to achieving this right progressively and on the basis of equal opportunity, they shall in particular:



“Make Primary education compulsory and available free to all; Encourage the development of different forms of secondary education, including general and vocational education, make them available and accessible to every child, and take appropriate measures such as the introduction of free education and offering financial assistance in case of need;

Make higher education accessible to all on the basis of capacity by every appropriate means;

Make educational and vocational information and guidance available and accessible to all children; Take measures to encourage regular attendance at schools and the reduction of drop-out rates”

These treaties further more affirm the objectives of the education as promotion of personal development, strengthening the

respect for human rights and freedoms, enabling individuals to actively participate in his/her society and to promote cooperation, friendship and tolerance. The right to education means access to educational services with elimination of discrimination at all levels of education and to set minimum standards of quality education. It was also recognized that for the fulfillment of any social, political, economical and civil right, education is necessary. The UNESCO (1989) also emphasized on the implementation of its core principles as nondiscrimination in the best interest of the child, right of a living as enabling child to survive and develop himself/herself to the maximum extent possible, expression of views regarding each and every matter which affect them and to give due weight/space in accordance with their age and maturity. These underlying principles make clear a strong commitment to ensuring that children are recognized as active agents in their own learning and that education is designed to promote and respect their rights and needs. The Convention elaborates an understanding of the right to education in terms of universality, participation, respect and inclusion. This approach is exemplified both in the text itself and in its interpretation by the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the international body established to monitor governments’ progress in implementing child rights.


“Right to Education” in national context: Development of responsible, capable and conscious individuals and societies is possible without provision of educational facilities. Education is not only necessary for every child but it is their basic

right hence it is the primary responsibility of state to enable its

citizens to access education. Many countries has constituted by laws that education is the basic and foremost right of every individual. Article 37 B of the constitution of Pakistan stated: “the state shall remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimal possible time”. In 2010, government of Pakistan has also included Right to Education (RTE) through Article 25 A of the 18th amendment. Amendment to the constitution is the first step and it is necessary to make law for its proper implementation in the country. The statement of Article A is as follows: “The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such manner as may be determined by law”. RTE is recognized since the Universal declaration of Human Rights (1948) in its article 26 and UNESCO has adopted it as free and compulsory basic education for children from 1951. Education for All (EFA) is another international movement and a global commitment for providing basic quality education to all children, youth and adults. Pakistan is one of the signatories of EFA among 164 countries and government of Pakistan pledged to achieve all 6 goals of EFA to be met by 2015. The year 2015 has passed and this dream still yet to come true in Pakistan as we are far behind in achieving the goals of EFA. Pakistan is also committed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of education by the year 2015 but this commitment could not be fulfilled successfully in Pakistan. According to UNESCO there are many benefits of education: literacy is a human right and it is also a tool of human, social and personal development. Literacy skills are at the heart of

basic education for all. Basic literacy skills are essential for reducing the rate of child mortality, achievement of gender equality in education and other fields, eradicating poverty, controlling over population growth, and ensuring sustainable development of the country. Sen (1989) states that quality basic education enables children to have literacy skills of life and for continuous learners or lifelong learners. It is also observed that if parent are 124 literate they would send their children to school, literate individuals are able to access more educational opportunities. All of the educational policies emphasized free and compulsory education for children in Pakistan but it could not be achieved in its true spirit. Now primary and secondary education in Pakistan is free but there are serious concerns over its quality. Annual Status of Education Reports (ASER) claimed that the quality of basic education in Pakistan is miserable in the light of students’ performance in English, Urdu and Mathematics.





Q.3: Teacher education is confronted with multiple challenges in list 21st century. Give suggestion to overcome?                              (20) Marks


Ans:            Teacher    education   is   confronted    with    multiple challenges in list 21st century:

The purpose of teacher education is to produce teachers who have professional competencies. The role of teachers is no longer confined

to teaching alone. They need to be thorough professionals, fully equipped with high academic standard, pedagogical and practical skills. In this age of globalization, we need to make the system of teacher education more innovative and futuristic in order to respond to the changing demands of the society. To maintain the standards and to update the quality of teacher education we require commitment and training of people concerned.

Teacher educators thus have to be motivated enough to plan for their own personal and professional development. They are expected to take responsibility and take charge for their own learning and development. As such self-discipline and selfregulation are the key factors responsible for success. Effective teacher education prepares new teachers for a role which is both complex and demanding. Accomplished teaching simultaneously involves command of subject matter and how to teach it to diverse students. Putting all this into practice on a daily basis is extremely demanding in the age of globalization (Kaur, 2010).

The basic role of teacher education is to:

Train teachers to teach pre-school children. Train teachers to teach primary school children.

Train teachers to teach secondary school children. Train teachers to teach higher secondary children.

At all these levels besides having mastery over the subject to be

taught the teachers also require different skills like identifying the needs of the learner, selecting appropriate methods of teaching and

learning aids etc. Besides these they also need to have catered to the all-round development of children. The role of teacher education hence has a very vital role to play as its products go and work right from the grass root level of the society. As we move ahead in the 21st century with LPG as our driving theme our entire focus should be on our product. What we need to emphasize is the quality by giving the necessary self-confidence through competence both in theory and its application. Both should be inter-linked so as to make his learning effective and 146 applicable in his real life too. Our aim should be to make him face the real challenges in the life. Teacher education should concentrate on making our teacher’s techno savvy. We need to use the technology for our own benefit. Teacher education should develop multi-skills among our teachers so that they are able to use technology in the teaching-learning and also participate in the process of creation of new knowledge. Teacher education also needs to look into innovative ways of evaluation along with teachers learning (Vartak, 2004).

Quality assurance:


With the increasing participation of the private institutions and the ever rising thrust on autonomy for the existing institutions, it is imperative that demands would be made on quality assurance.





Though we regard teacher education as a profession, we are different when we compare ourselves with the other professions like medicine,

engineering etc. We are still tentative about the importance of the pre- service and in-service training in acquiring the required knowledge and skills by our students. The one year training program a pre- requisite for becoming a teacher is rigorous no doubt, but it is somewhat rigid. We are more driven by the form of the course rather than the content. Ability to generate new ideas, commitment and dedication in our work is essential to make ourselves professionals.



We want to introduce new technology in teacher education. Introduction of ICT and computer training in our course is a step in that direction. The experience so far shows that teacher educators are not adept at using the computer in the teaching-learning process since their recently acquired knowledge is restricted only to the use of standard software applications. We need to become more focused on the systematic use of technology for making the teaching learning process more interactive and enjoyable. Technology should be harnessed for increasing our participation in the process of creation of new knowledge.

Attracting Talent:


Attracting talent into the teaching profession remains one of the major challenges before us today. The number of merit holder students opting for teaching profession is very few. We need to reflect this situation. There is always a talk that the teachers have to keep themselves abreast with the latest trends, knowledge and skills through self-study, be innovative and creative through participation in varied academic activities and research. This is possible only if we

can attract talented people in the profession who are self-motivated and self-inspired.



Evaluation system:


Generating a reliable evaluation system is another important challenge before us. Teacher educators need to look into innovative, objective, open and transparent methods of evaluation which will test the application of knowledge along with the comprehension. We should encourage pupils to face competitive exams effectively.

Equity: The greatest challenge before us even today is the search for equity. Equity refers to the equity in the development of all abilities of the individual and it also means the equity in the development of all the strata of the society. Head, Hand and Heart are three powerful tools given to everyone by God. But today we are becoming a knowledge society.

Need of the present study: The standards of learning are influenced strongly by teacher’s capacity, understanding and skills. School education can achieve the intended objectives of national reconstructions only if there are corresponding reflections of the same concerns in the programs of teacher education, as teacher it is the pivot on which the outcomes expected of any educational system can blossom.

Q.4: Explain importance of social and cultural context in teaching learning process?                                                                                   (20) Marks



Ans: Importance of social and cultural context in teaching:


Students’ social needs and various student, classroom and school background are the important factors to determine the instruction of course other than the teacher’s background, beliefs and attitudes. Teaching and Learning International Survey(TALIS) also observed such teaching practices which are totally based upon students socio economic, language background, intelligent level, grade level, and size of class. For instance studies on aptitudetreatment interactions proposed that learner with low intellectual abilities gains more advantages from organized, teacher- centered instruction. On the other hand learners with high intellectual aptitudes may gain more from less organized and more complex instruction (Snow and Lohman, 1984). TALIS looks at macroadaptively i.e. the adaptation of teaching practices to characteristics of the class (Cronbach, 1957). It has been proved from researches that the effectiveness of schools the quality of the learning environment is the factor affecting student learning and outcomes that is most readily modified. It shows the variables such as cognitive and motivational capacities, socio-economic background, social and cultural capital are out of control by the teachers and school (Scheerens and Bosker, 1997; Hopkins, 2005; Lee and Williams, 2006; Harris and Chrispeels, 2006, Social interactions

between student and teachers contribute to create healthy learning process and it has implications for both student development and teacher development. Numerous researchers have found that the teacher-student relationship can have positive effects on student development, academic achievement, and cognitive development, determination in higher education, students ‘personality development, and educational aspirations (Pascarella, 1980; Terenzini & Pascarella, 1980 Volkwein, King, and Terentini. 1986). . Teacher student interaction is more significant if it is linked with students’ development. Social context provide the opportunities for meaningful advisement, development of friendships, and testing of ideas and talents. Latest reviews of the literature that aim to identify the principles underlying teaching and learning have authenticated the significance of the social context. An early pioneer Rogers (1969) found that the facilitation of meaningful learning based upon certain attitudinal qualities which exist in the personal relationship between the teacher and the learner. Rogers (1969) argued that learning does not only depend upon the teacher’s leadership skills, mastery of content, planning skills, integration of technology, programmed learning and books. It shows, there has been increasing recognition of the importance of the social context.



The progressive approach change in the schools was occurring in the most recent decade of twentieth century. Educators have found themselves capable to expand the nature of training and enhance

results for students so as to make a more talented and instructed work environment. Levin (1998) has referred to both created and creating economies alike an approach pestilence which is conveyed by operators, for example, the World Bank and the OECD. Because of this strategy instruction is consider as a key fixing in the national financial advancement procedures. Certain elements have made national legislature of western industrialized countries concentrate on the nature of their necessary tutoring frameworks. These components specifically are moves in social dispositions and normal auxiliary issues, for example, changing work designs, maturing populaces, youth joblessness, neediness, avoidance and the osmosis of financial vagrants.

The ensuing area talks about the effect of approaches on the components included. These elements may differ significantly because of the specific social setting inside which they are arranged. Thusly, a strategy which might be worldwide in inception can be interceded by national instructive factors, for example, societies at school and educator level, bringing about altogether different elucidations and reactions. Organization and structure both coordinate to deliver new elucidations of educators' work in various social settings. It is especially critical not to limit the pretended by educators' convictions and qualities in translating, obliging state approach. So as to see this case this part audits near discoveries on educators' work in a few European nations. Near discoveries on educators' work drawing especially upon a program of expressly

relative research which has analyzed the effect national approach change on instructors' work and expert character.





Q.5: Describe general principles of ethics in teaching. How these are practiced in our educational institutions.                                            (20) Marks



Ans: General principles of ethics in teaching:





An action is considered to be right when all people treating fairly. Justice is mainly related with the duties and rights of all stakeholders and its emphasizes the fairness and equity of an action (Dempster & Berry,2003).




The care perspective emphasizes empathy and caring as well as the network of relationships. An action is right when it satisfies stakeholder’s needs and desires and leads to their growth (Feng, 2011).




Utilitarianism perspective is concerned with outcomes. It emphasizes that the consequence of an action determine its moral worth. An action is right because it leads to the greatest good and the least bad on the basis of utilitarian considerations. Teacher, principal should always act to maximum benefit of students and minimum harm for the greatest number of stakeholders (Feng, 2011).







The critique perspective emphasizes decision makers’ recognizing inequities in both schools and society. An action is right when it leads to equal opportunities for stakeholders by breaking oppression, privileges, and inequalities.

School leaders should critically reflect on the ideology that people take for granted and probe unreasonable details when making decisions. Overall, the focus of this perspective is on addressing inconsistencies and inequalities in life to achieve real social justice.


The virtue perspective emphasizes a person’s moral character. Virtues are a person’s disposition to act in a certain way and are cultivated by practice in daily life to facilitate a certain way of acting and living.

Teachers play multiple tasks in daily life; an imperative role is transmission of morality towards next generation. Teacher performs moral duty formally and informally, he/she is considered to be same role inside and outside the classroom. Ways to transmit moral messages:



Ø    Show moral and ethical behavior himself


Ø    Model good behavior and attitudes in classroom


Ø    Story telling


Ø    Respecting students


Ø    Peaceful environment

  Being nice, polite and thoughtful

  Well behaved The moral duty of teacher:

  Handle students with care

  Positive relationship with students and other staff member

  Acting best interest of students

  Classroom environment (Catherine. E, 2011).

  Knowledge and expertise of teachers

  Academic and theoretical knowledge

  Cultural custodian

  Facilitator of inquiry

  Communicator, management, organization for effective teaching (Carr, 2000)

  Using rapid incremental innovation

  Empowering others

  Emphasizing thinking over memorizing

  Applying knowledge

  Fitting one’s teaching to one’s own style

  Maintain dignity of the student


  Responsibility (Joyce & Rober, 2003).





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