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AIOU Research Project 8613 Question No. 1 to 8 complete solved Theme: Children’s socio Emotional Development pdf


AIOU Research Project 8613 Question No. 1 to 8 complete solved

Theme:  Children’s socio Emotional Development



1.      Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience/ problem in your classroom/ institution.

(Give the background and rationale of study)                                          (10 Marks)

I am a trainee teacher and chose Govt high school for my research project. We know that action research is totally based on local level so my class was sixth standard. I observed the problems in judgment of students about themselves among sixth graders. It was noticed that students used to lack the confidence in their skills and abilities and therefore their class participation was very less too as they were not aware of what they have and without knowing and having believe in their abilities, they were also unable to use those capabilities as much as they could do.Being able to understand and manage your own behaviors is essential tool to survive in a community. It is also equally necessary for well being of a child. While students of sixth grade needed to lean and enhance this ability. It is necessary for them to learn to act in a way that is best for them in the long terms and supports them for long term. It was also observed that some students underestimated themselves and their

capabilities hence, they were unable to achieve what they were able to achieve. Their participation in co-curricular activities was also less as they were not trying to explore and be aware of the talent they possessed.

Rationale of selecting this topic was only to support children in becoming self-aware and develop their self-efficacy levels through motivation and making them understand that it is in their best interest to be judge themselves positively in a better way. If we don’t develop and enhance self-efficacy in our behaviors, we will be facing problems in our personal, professional and social life. From time to time, different things can affect a child’s self-efficacy.

Due to low self efficacy it was observed that students were led to self-doubt as well and it led them to feel embarrassed as well. Hence, it was the rationale of selecting this research topic for my research as it is a basic need of children and students of elementary level were having problems in this aspect of their behaviors.



I noticed that many students were having problems in becoming self aware and trusting their capacities and capabilities and as a result there was lack of participation in the classroom which resulted in passive environment for students if lack of communication from their side stopped them from participation. Also, it was badly impacting their academic achievements as they were underestimating themselves and their talents due to lack of awareness which was leading them to poor performance in educational domain too and reason that they felt like this was probably lack of training of them to develop their self-efficacy and do not under-estimate their capacities or perhaps a collective effort over all on majority of them was needed.

In today’s society parents are not spending enough time with their children, or


even facilitating them in gaining appropriate degree of self-efficacy. Parents could be doing things such as sitting with their children during their home work, bed time routines and doing even something so little as encouraging them at times and making them know they have their own strengths. But instead, parents and teachers are using demeaning and harsh terms rather than supporting them to develop and enhance their self-efficacy levels by becoming self-aware.

Self-efficacy can play an important role in health psychology and how people manage their health, nutrition, and illness. For example, having a strong sense of self- efficacy can help people who are trying to quit smoking stick to their goals. Maintaining a weight loss plan, managing chronic pain, giving up alcohol, sticking to an exercise schedule, and following an eating plan can all be influenced by a person's levels of self- efficacy.

As a child grows, self-efficacy will help them to learn at school – because self- efficacy gives a child the ability to participate actively in the classroom, behave in socially better ways because self-efficacy gives the child the ability to not negatively judge themselves in different situations, make friends – because self-efficacy gives the child ability to take turns in games assertively as they believe in their capacities, make decisions confidently, become more independent because self-efficacy gives a child the ability to think they can do things alone, on their own and make them believe they know how to behave in new situations with less guidance, they can manage stressors of circumstances – because self-efficacy helps the children to deal with stressors by keeping faith in themselves as they believe they can bounce back easily.


 Research Project Lecture

2.      What was your discussion with your colleague / friend/ senior teacher or supervisor regarding problem/

(Provide your discussion with your colleagues, supervisor, teacher for better understanding of the problem and alternate solutions)

                                                                                                                                (5 Marks)

The problem was noticed in the students’ judgment of themselves and their evaluation of themselves due to lack of self awareness. They used to lack self awareness which made them feel they lack ability to do things and achieve success. They also had difficulty dealing with stressors and bouncing back in daily life stressful circumstances and later as a result, poor and bad educational performance and lack of participation in curricular and co-curricular activities was the consequence. There were lack of problem solving ability found in them and they used to give up trying on things quickly too. This problem was existing in elementary level students at an extreme level. A great need to deal with the problem was felt.

When I discussed it with my colleagues, they told me student had never got help for this problem of themselves and they were instead just pressurized by everyone through to get good grades, to find solutions of different problems, to deal effectively with stressful situations but their problem was actually not given attention properly. They were being pressurized to participate in classroom activities and co-curricular activities which probably led to a decrease in their ability to perform well and made children judge themselves negatively.

No one had it get practiced by the students. Teachers also were not using strategies to overcome this problem of students while there are techniques that can help children cope with it.



3.      What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books/ articles/ websites)/

(Explore books and online resources to know what and how has been already done regarding problem)(10 Marks)

For my research project I read different articles and books on different websites and libraries and I gathered background data about my research. Before this research, many other studies have been done on the relevant topics.


Wilde and Hsu (2019) conducted a research to find how general self-efficacy affects the interpretation of vicarious experience information and how this affects self-efficacy in being able to complete a set task within a career skills online learning environment.

Results showed individuals with low general self-efficacy to find vicarious experience information significantly less beneficial for their self-efficacy in completing a set task when compared to others with high general self-efficacy. Those with low general self- efficacy were more likely to make negative self-comparisons to the vicarious experience information, restricting its potential to increase their self-efficacy. In contrast, participants with high general self-efficacy found many of the vicarious experience information presented to be beneficial to their self-efficacy to complete the set task as

they were more likely to dismiss any information they interpreted to be negative. Betroret, Rosello and Artiga (2017) designed a study to Self-Efficacy, study relationship between satisfaction, and academic achievement and the mediating role of students' expectancy-value beliefs. The sample comprises 797 Spanish secondary education students from 36 educational settings and three schools. The scales that referred to self- efficacy and expectancy-value beliefs were administered at the beginning of the course, while student satisfaction and achievement were measured at the end of the course. The data analysis was conducted by structural equation modeling (SEM). The results revealed that students' expectancy-value beliefs (Subject value, Process expectancy, Achievement expectancy, Cost expectancy) played a mediator role between academic self-efficacy and

the achievement/satisfaction relationship.


Yusuf (2011) investigated the impact of self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and learning strategies on students’ academic achievement. Conducting this research is important since there is a lack of educational research on the above research components as an integrated motivational model. Selected undergraduate the following research Question: What is the impact of self-efficacy beliefs, achievement motivation, and self- learning strategies on academic achievement of the UKM undergraduate students?

Scientifically, & results& affiliated direct and Hand directed technique indicated the effects of self-efficacy beliefs, achievement motivation, and elf learning strategies on academic achievement. Self-efficacy beliefs were significantly enhanced learning attainment.




4.      What were major variables / construct of your project? Give definitions/ description from literature.     (5 Marks)

(What are key terms in your topic or study? What do you mean of these terms? What particular meaning you will attend to the term when used in this project?)

In my project self efficacy is the major variable. Following is definition of ‘self efficacy’. It is defined as people’s belief about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise influence over events that affect their lives. Self-efficacy beliefs determine how people feel, think, motivate themselves and behave. Such beliefs produce these diverse effects through four major processes. They include cognitive, motivational, effective and selection processes.

A strong sense of efficacy enhances human accomplishment and personal well- being in many ways. People with high assurance in their capabilities approach difficult tasks as challenges to be mastered rather than as threats to be avoided. Such an efficacious outlook fosters intrinsic interest and deep engrossment in activities. They set themselves challenging goals and maintain strong commitment to them. They heighten and sustain their efforts in the face of failure. They quickly recover their sense of efficacy after failures or setbacks. They attribute failure to insufficient effort or deficient knowledge and skills which are acquirable. They approach threatening situations with assurance that they can exercise control over them. Such an efficacious outlook produces personal accomplishments, reduces stress and lowers vulnerability to depression.


In contrast, people who doubt their capabilities shy away from difficult tasks which they view as personal threats. They have low aspirations and weak commitment to the goals they choose to pursue. When faced with difficult tasks, they dwell on their

personal deficiencies, on the obstacles they will encounter, and all kinds of adverse outcomes rather than concentrate on how to perform successfully. They slacken their efforts and give up quickly in the face of difficulties. They are slow to recover their sense of efficacy following failure or setbacks. Because they view insufficient performance as deficient aptitude it does not require much failure for them to lose faith in their capabilities. They fall easy victim to stress and depression.

Dependent Variable: was building self-efficacy in the behaviors of elementary graders


Independent Variable: Self-awareness




5.                                  What did you want to achieve in this research project?


(Objective/ purpose of study, what was critical question that was tried to be answered in project)           (5 Marks)

The topic that I selected for this project was building self efficacy through different self awareness techniques at elementary level.

According to my selected topic, my objectives of the study were:


To describe whether or not to what extent strategies can build self-efficacy through self-awareness

To identify what happens when such strategies are used as a teaching learning media practices

To find the possible methods and ways to help children develop their self efficacy.




My purpose was building self-efficacy in their attitudes through self awareness in elementary level students.

Critical Question:


The critical question of this study was how to develop their self efficacy through use of self-awareness techniques?

6.                                  Who were participants?                                                                     (5 Marks)


(Give details of individuals or groups who were focused in project)


My research topic was related to development of self efficacy in elementaty level students. Participants of the study’s details are given below:

Individually each participant play different role:


                                        Students: This research was conducted in students of sixth class. Students were main participants. Many students showed positive attitude towards study. There were 40 students who were selected as sample and they were participants of the study.

                                        Parents: A parent teacher meeting was held in presence of students. I observed huge difference between educated and non educated parents’ attitude towards their children and their lack of communication and withdrawn attitudes.




7.      How did you try to solve problem?                                                                 (10 Marks)


(Narrate the process step-wise. Procedure of interventions and data collection)


According to this topic, problem was in self efficacy level of students and I chose students of elementary class. I judged the existence of problem and prepared a performa and observation sheet. Then I gathered information about problem in detail and decided to solve the problem by using different strategies. These strategies included;

Self-mastery: Self-mastery involves structuring practices that result in success and avoid the chances of failure. For example, when a pilot obtains training before his first flight, he gets all-around exercise for long hours where he polishes his skills, practices the desired actions, and prepares himself for any unexpected situations on air. This practice makes him more confident about his abilities and reduces his chances of failing in the real task.

2.                                  Role modeling: Most organizational setups follow this approach to foster self- efficacy among clients and personnel. In role modeling sessions, participants observe the actions of others and gain an objective understanding of favorable performances. It gives them an idea of why they should replicate the same and how they would benefit from building trust in themselves. Observing role models boost motivation and give us the power to accept and accomplish challenging tasks.



Verbal persuasions: Verbal persuasions include encouragement and praise words from others. For example, positive feedback from a customer can immediately motivate a new seller and give him the zeal to keep working hard. Verbal persuasions can also be self-directed. For example, keeping aside a few minutes each day to praise yourself and repeat affirmations like – “I am trying hard”, “I can overcome this”, “I am doing good,” “I look good”, etc., can immensely help in creating a strong sense of self. Irrespective of our talents, success, and failures, we can get the power to accept ourselves and keep seeking for better results.

4.            Self-awareness: To develop efficacy, we have to become the person who knows us. Gretchen Rubin had said, “self-awareness is a key to self-mastery,” and self- mastery is the direct path to self-efficacy. Practicing self-awareness can be, and there are multiple ways to do it.

                                                                           We can keep a thought journal to record our thoughts and feelings at all times.

                                                                           We can read the physical cues; for example, a ‘butterfly’ feeling in the stomach generally indicates nervousness or clenching jaws are an indicator of anger. Watching these small physical symptoms can help us understand our feelings that very moment.

                                                                           We can also catch thoughts randomly and try to gauge what we are pondering on right now, and why.

Student’s involvement:


I engage the class in groups and involve whole class in my daily base activities. Every single student was involved in practice of developing their self- efficacy behaviors through self-awareness strategies.






8.      What kind of instruments were used to collect data? How was instruments

developed?                                                                                                              (5 Marks)

(For example observation, rating scales, interview, student work, portfolio, test etc).

I collected data from grade sixth students through using following research instruments:


Observation sheet:


Then, I prepared an observation sheet, How students develop self- confidence? Almost 40 students were observed after performing mentioned strategies and in the end it was noticed that 25 students had well developed self-efficacy levels in them.

Group practice:


Class was divided by trainee teacher in four groups. Each group had ten members. Group leader was selected from each group to administer group activity in disciplined manner. A competition was held between both groups.

Data collection:


In last, I prepared a questionnaire based on rating scale and then I judged the improvement in their attitude toward different academic tasks and their class participation. The development of the ability was also judged through observation.

Rating scale:

      Rating scale was prepared for collection, description, scale length, scale format and scale users, its data      collection and method and data analysis was done for final results and future uses.

Students’ work:


During every class students who showed lack of self-efficacy in their behaviors were encouraged to adopt positive attitudes through use of positive techniques like token economy in order to enhance their positive, assertive and confident behaviors.



A collection of photographs, drawings etc that were used to build the ability to remain confident were collected. Portfolios help in our plans, organization and documentation for educational purposes and sample works.

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