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AIOU Research Project (8613) Autumn 2023 Solved Project Theme: Language Development in Classroom Sub-theme: Vocabulary Expansion

 Theme: Language Development in Classroom

 Sub-theme: Vocabulary Expansion

 Topic: Impact of Quality Teacher-Child Interaction on Vocabulary Development At Government High School 102 JB Burj Mandi

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1.                 Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience / problem in your classroom / institution. (10 marks).

The present topic has been selected for action research because the Vocabulary Expansion issues are faced by all the students in different levels of education for career development.

During the class i realize mostly students pay did not attention because many students was feels very shy to speak. I say some student tell me about lecture but they not express their ideas about study. Most of them were quite and did not responded. I assumed that students lacked the confidence to practice speaking, which is one of the main factors to promote confidence in speaking and express their ideas in free way. I identified from the literature of activity based teaching and motivation of students. These wise self introduction an English favorite stories, interviews and discussions. These activities and related materials wise used to promote Vocabulary Expansion.

Fastener and Carl smith (1959) found that the payment of money to college students to lie about enjoying a dull learning task did little to change the student's opinion of the task. Similarly, Deci (1971; 1972) discovered that money as a reward has detrimental effects on motivation. Intrinsically motivated college students became less motivated when paid money as a reward. On the other hand, when intrinsically motivated students were given praise as a reward, their motivation was enhanced.

So, i selected that specific sub-theme to create self confidence in students through encouragement and rewards. My students were often weak in self-confidence mainly one reason of this, because they belong to backward and uneducated areas.

2.     What was your discussion with your colleague / friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem? (05 marks)

I noticed that it’s a big problem in our school and rural areas schools. Now a day’s education is so tough that’s why self confidence is very necessary for students. I discussed this problem with my colleagues, senior teacher and supervisor. My colleagues and senior staff tell me our students have no guidance about self-confidence. They have low Vocabulary Expansion and so weak speaking power. Mostly teachers used lecture method for teaching, Students are only listening that why they have low confidence and also basic problem surrounding environment. we discuss all together how to improve Vocabulary Expansion in students. I decide solve this problem through encourages their students for interviews, using question-answer technique conducting game competition and giving rewards.

In the beginning of action research, I had discussed the topic with my supervisor Mam Sadia Waqas. She had responded to the basic elements of research such as objectives of the topics and methodology and indicators. She asked me to develop my action research practically. She asked me how to improve Vocabulary Expansion in children.

As i had discuss it above that my topic is developing Vocabulary Expansion in the students of 6 class i had a discussion on my topic with my fellow colleagues where i had completed my research work.

I ask to Uswa Mubeen what is the major problem in lacking of Vocabulary Expansion in students at early classes she told me that students have different family background some students have broken families some have economic problem if we try to find these factor at grass root level and then solve them we can build a sense of Vocabulary Expansion in students. I think so that she is writing and also discuss this topic with Saima she had done her M.Phil. in psychology and i think that her opinion will be accurate in this regard she is saying that in early classes it is a new stage of the students life when they come to school some students are little mature and some are immature they feel homesickness in class and they feel difficulty in to gel up in their classes it is the a another major fact in their low Vocabulary Expansion, very low motivation level and fear to face the class In front of teacher she said that if a teacher creates a friendly environment in class then we can solve this issue.

3.     What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books / articles / websites)? (10 marks)

Effective and rewarding teaching learning process is directly related to the effective classroom management. Without effective classroom management, teaching learning has no fruitful and productive outcomes. Effective classroom management depends on the competencies (capacity, proficiency) of teachers. Good managers devise and announce classroom rules and regulations at the beginning of session in order to control classroom disruptive behaviors and make the classroom atmosphere favorable for teaching learning process.

Teachers use a variety of rewards and stimulus (encouragement) to motivate students. According  to  Ivancevich  and  Matteson  (1990:171)  teachers  use  a  variety  of  rewards  to attract  and  maintain  students  and  to  motivate  them  to  achieve  their  teaching  goals.Rewarding students is therefore vital for the teaching success. Incentives are external stimuli which can be used as stimulants to productivity.

When a behavior leads to desirable outcomes, it is more likely to occur in future situations. Therefore, reinforcing is merely the impact seen by the reinforcing agent. To determine whether an event is capable of reinforcing its impact should be considered.

Armstrong  (2012),  states  that  reward  management  deals  with  the  strategies, policies  and  processes  required  to  ensure  that  the  peoples  value  and  contributions  they make to achieving developmental goals of teaching and rewarded. It can therefore be seen that rewards play an important role in motivating students to perform at their best and also to maintain  top  performers.  Lathans  (2002:45)  observes  that  teachers  provide  rewards  to their personnel in order to try to motivate their performance and encourage their loyalty and maintained.”

As already demonstrated, extrinsic motivation is a deeper issue than it come because it may undermine intrinsic (natural) motivation under certain conditions and promote it under others conditions. (Williams & Stockdale, 2004). However, it is worthwhile for all teachers have an understanding of extrinsic rewards because “many of the tasks that educators want their students to perform are not inherently interesting and knowing”. How to promote more

active and volitional (a choice or decision made) forms of extrinsic motivation becomes an essential strategy for successful teaching’. (Ryan & Deci,2000).


It is important to understand that before analyzing different reward options, factors that affect reward strategies and practices. Each teacher is faced with a number of internal and external factors that affect the reward system is structured and administered. Armstrong (2010), identifies teaching culture, sector or work environment, students, teaching strategy, school climate as key internal variables that affect reward strategies. Each of these factors is different for each school and the teachers will develop a reward system based on how it values each of the variables. Armstrong (2010:17).


These factors play an important role and may force teachers to take certain decisions. In discussing different types of rewards and incentives it is important to first categorize these. Rewards can be viewed as intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic rewards “are intangible (invisible) rewards concerned with the work environment (quality of education, the teachers teaching) recognition, performance management and learning and development” Armstrong (2002:99). Kinicki and Kreitner (1998), state that financial, material and social rewards are extrinsic rewards because they come from the environment.


To apply a reward system to a classroom, a teacher must first understand what a reward system is and what the advantages n disadvantages are when using it. The term reward is broadly defined as a tool that teacher use to try and reinforce a desired behavior (Wetzel and Mercer, 2003). The elements that determine the effectiveness of a reward are how it is delivered by the teachers and how it is perceived by the student (Wetzel and Mercer, 2012). If a teacher delivers a reward for good behavior, the student must make the connection between the right behavior and the reward. If students think they were rewarded for a different behavior, then the given reward will not be effective, and the student will have associated getting a reward with the wrong behavior (Wetzel and Mercer, 2012). So, teachers need to make sure that when giving rewards, students understand why they received them.

4.     What were the major variables / construct of your project? Give definitions / description from literature. (05 marks)

Variables of the study:


Total two variables included in this research. One was independent variables and second was dependent variable. Students rewarding system and encouragement used as independent variables and students Vocabulary Expansion used as dependent variable.

1.  Students Motivations:


Tangible forms of encouragement give students a visual reminder that they have the power to learn and succeed. They are especially effective when used sparingly or in moderation after students achieve learning milestones in the classroom

Ø      Give Positive Feedback.

Ø      Set Realistic Expectations and Celebrate When They Are Met.

Ø      Let Your Own Excitement Come Through.

Ø      Vary Your Teaching Methods.

Ø      Facilitate Don't Dominate.

Ø      Make Topics Practical.

Ø      Show Students Their Own Successes.

Ø      Get Out of the Book


2.  Vocabulary Expansion:

In psychology, the term Vocabulary Expansion is used to describe a person's overall sense of self-worth or personal value. In other words, how much you appreciate and like yourself. It involves a variety of beliefs about you, such as the appraisal of your own appearance, beliefs, emotions, and behaviors. Vocabulary Expansion is an individual's subjective evaluation of their own worth. Self- esteem encompasses beliefs about oneself as well as emotional states, such as triumph, despair, pride, and shame.

5. What did you want to achieve in this research project? (05 marks) Research Objectives:

Purpose of the study was to investigate the development of Vocabulary Expansion in children of 6th grade.  So,  the  study  will  focus  on  the  causes  of  problems  of  students  regarding  this. In order to achieve said aims, following objectives are designed:

Objectives of the Study:


Following was the main objective of the study.


1.    To explore the relationship between rewarding system and student’s Vocabulary Expansion in 6 class.

2.   To explore the relationship between student encouragement and Vocabulary Expansion development in 6 class.

3.  To find out the reasons behind the lack of Vocabulary Expansion of students.


4.  To give suggestion for the improvement of the situation.


Research Questions of the study:


RQ1: What is the relationship between rewarding system and student’s Vocabulary Expansion.?


RQ2: What is the relationship between student encouragement and Vocabulary Expansion development at Elementary level?

RQ3: What are the reasons behind the lack of Vocabulary Expansion of students? RQ4: What are the suggestions for the improvement of the situation?

6.     Who were the participants in your project? (05 marks) Population:

The population of the study comprised girls studying at Government Girls High School 102

JB Burj Mandi.




A total of “40” students were taken as a sample of the study was taken as Convenient sample by applying the Matched Pair Random Sampling Technique. So, total sample size was 40 respondents including female students. This sample provide appropriate knowledge regarding all the students of the school they studying in the school.

7.     How did you try to solve the problem? (10 marks) Research Methodology:

All research methods and techniques that will be used in this study are given below.


Research Method:

Research method may describe into three forms: Quantitative Method, Qualitative method and Mixed Method. In the study, quantitative research method was used, because data was collect by using questionnaire in the light of students and teachers perception.

Research Design:

It is descriptive and survey research about “The development of Vocabulary Expansion Through Encourage in Children of 6 grade”.


A population is otherwise called an all-around characterized gathering of people or questions known to have comparative attributes. All people or protests inside a specific population typically have a typical, restricting trademark or characteristic. The target population of this study was the students of public school of Burj Mandi. The data was collected from students public schools by filling up the questionnaire.

Sampling Technique

Convenient sampling technique was used in this study.



In research a sample is a gathering of individuals, that are taken from a bigger population for estimation. The example ought to be illustrative of the population to guarantee that we can sum up the discoveries from the exploration test to the population all in all. 40 students were selected from  school.

Data collection procedure:


Data was collected by through questionnaires. One questionnaire was filled by one students according to his point of view. In this way 40 questionnaire filled by 40 respondents. On the base of this data know the opinion of students, find out the problems of students,  and provided solution to sort out these problems. Open ended and closed ended questions were used for the purpose of data collection. In closed ended questionnaires 5 Likert point scale questions were developed in the form of strongly agreed (SA=5), Agree (A=4), Undecided (UD=3), Disagree (DA=2) and strongly Disagree (DA=1).

Data Analysis:

Data collection measure means the tool through which the data can be collected”. There are different sources of data collection like scales, proxies, and questions. In this study the researcher used appropriate research tools and software to analysis of data, like; SPSS 18 software analysis in which descriptive analysis was used to find out the frequency, percentage, means and minimum/maximum values etc.


8.     What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed? (05 marks)



The study used questionnaires as the main research instrument. Questionnaire is the form in which different questions asked by the sample of the study to complete the goal of the study.

Questionnaires were three in counting and labeled as:


Ø      Closed Ended Questionnaire for students about encouragement and rewarding system and its impact on student’s Vocabulary Expansion.

Ø      Open Ended Questionnaire for students about Vocabulary Expansion development of students.

Ø      Questionnaire for students’ suggestions for effective rewarding and encouragement system in the classroom.

Questionnaire for students:


The following main questions guided the collection and analysis of data for the present study. All the information that containing in these question ultimately helpful for developing self- esteem in students.

1)        All students are motivated to perform well in school?

2)        Different techniques used to increase the Vocabulary Expansion of students?

3)        Rewards encourage the student to perform well?

4)        Are the students being rewarded positively?

5)        Are the students being rewarded by their unsatisfactory performance?

6)        Reward system improves the Vocabulary Expansion of students?

7)        Are the students happy after receive reward?

8)        Encouragement of the students develop Vocabulary Expansion?

9)        Does the misbehavior of students is change with reward?

10)      Teacher use reward for whole class to improve Vocabulary Expansion of the students?

11)    Instruments, participants and procedures of quantitative data collection are presented in the following sections.


Data Analysis:

After the collection of the data it was tabulated. Questionnaires were analyzed. After collecting data, the simple percentage and frequency model was applied to evaluate the score on different performance indicators to check the significance.

9.     What were the findings and conclusion? (10 marks) Findings:

ü  Overall majority (98%) of the respondents agreed that Are students are motivated to perform well in school.

ü  Overall majority (97%) of the respondents agreed that Different techniques used to increase the Vocabulary Expansion of students.

ü  Overall majority (98%) of the respondents agreed that Rewards encourage the student to perform well.

ü  Overall majority (97%) of the respondents agreed that Are the students being rewarded positively.

ü  Overall majority (95%) of the respondents agreed that Are the students being rewarded by their unsatisfactory performance.

ü  Overall majority (96%) of the respondents agreed that reward system improves the Vocabulary Expansion of students.

ü  Overall majority (98%) of the respondents agreed that Are the students happy after receive reward.

ü  Overall majority (99%) of the respondents agreed that Encouragement of the students develop Vocabulary Expansion.

ü  Overall majority (97%) of the respondents agreed that Does the misbehavior of students is change with reward.

ü  Overall majority (98%) of the respondents agreed that Teacher use reward for whole class to improve Vocabulary Expansion of the students.

Ø      Conclusions:


The researcher in this study, from the findings concluded by analysis the following conclusion:

Rewarding system is the most powerful tool of student’s Vocabulary Expansion. Encouragement to increase a response not only works better, but allows both parties to focus on the positive aspects of the situation. Punishment, when applied immediately following the negative behavior can be effective, but problems may result when it is not applied consistently. Punishment can also invoke other negative emotional responses, such as anger and resentment.

Teacher-student relationships are crucial for the success of both teachers and students. As a feature of classroom administration, such connections are the most noteworthy factor in deciding an educator's work as effective. The impact of instructor's conduct assumes a critical job in the scholastic accomplishment of understudies. An instructor needs to show outstanding sympathy, constancy, industriousness, truthfulness, examine introduction, trustworthiness and adaptability as a man. Instructors likewise should be mindful in the manner by which anything that a living being does that includes activity and reaction to incitement.

Teaching is the activity of teachers for the purposes of education. Teaching is an arrangement and manipulation of a situation in which building students’ Vocabulary Expansion.



That good classroom management strategies show that reward system develop discipline, critical thinking, student’s confidence policies, punctuality, self-discipline, leadership skills, confidence and honesty in Government school students According to the perceptions of school students (in open-ended question), majority of the respondents (Govt school students) agreed that students ‘rewarding policies of classroom have a stronger effect on developing Vocabulary Expansion, punctuality, student’s confidence policies, leadership skill, teamwork, character development and adaptability.

10.                Summary of the Project. (05 marks)


Diversity recommended me some developing basic skills in which theme and sub theme. My topic that I choose THE DEVELOP VOCABULARY EXPANSION AMONG CHILDREN THROUGH

ENCOURAGEMENT AND REWARDS. I choose this topic because I have to face problem about Vocabulary Expansion in the school. It is difficult to create Vocabulary Expansion in the students during teaching.

The sample comprised a total of 40 students drawn from high school Burj Mandi. They were selected by simple random sampling technique.

This study investigated student’s Vocabulary Expansion among students. It also investigated the effects of school environment and management related differences on students’ academic performance in the concept of measurement when taught using hygienic environment and Unhygienic environment in the class.

Instrument used for students for data collection. Research design was descriptive. The result was finding that the reward system and encouragement develops Vocabulary Expansion in students regarding study. Teachers behavior and teaching method also impact on student’s behavior.


11. How do you feel about this practice? What have you learnt? (Self- reflection). (10 marks)

The aim of this study was the development of Vocabulary Expansion in children through motivation. My research in rural area basic skills. My project participants were the students of Govt Girls High School 102 JB. In rural areas mostly people maintain discipline but not all. Classroom positive reinforcement atmosphere is very important element in study because it helps in the learning of students. So I used different technique for creating motivational atmosphere in the class to maintain discipline that lead good behavior and personality. Students were happy and learn quickly on the base of hygienic atmosphere in the class. I feel pleasure. I think in our rural areas teacher create motivational atmosphere in the class through rewarding system then students have no problem in education. Student’s response to the implementation of teaching if they teach in hygienic atmosphere. I created hygienic atmosphere in the class through different activities. I learn that how to improve the student’s behavior and personality during the study. Finally, I feel satisfied.


12.                What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher? (05 marks)


Ø      It added some new things in my knowledge key points are given below.


Ø       It made me good organizer.

Ø       It made me ready for everything that is throwing their way.

Ø       Before these activities I was not a good organizer. it made me innovative.

Ø       I capable to find out new things.

Ø       It made me good effective teacher and mentor.

Ø       It made me good role model.

Ø       It made me confident. Teacher discipline can help influence other to be a better person.

Ø      It made me capable to understand how to create classroom atmosphere according to student’s psyche to develop Vocabulary Expansion and personality at Elementary level.

13. List the works you cited in your project (follow the APA manual 6th Edition). (05 marks)

R. G., Belfiore, P. J., & Scheeler, M. C. (2007). Preparing pre-service teachers to use positive behavior supports in general education classrooms. Pennsylvania Teacher Educator, 6, 50–57.

Belfiore, P. J., Fritts, K. M., & Herman, B. C. (2008). The role of procedural integrity: Using selfmonitoring to enhance discrete trial instruction. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 23, 95–102.

AIOU Research Project (8613) Autumn 2023 Solved Project  Theme: Language Development in Classroom Sub-theme: Vocabulary Expansion
AIOU Research Project (8613) Autumn 2023 Solved Project  Theme: Language Development in Classroom Sub-theme: Vocabulary Expansion

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