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AIOU B.Ed Philosophy 8609 Autumn 2023 Solved Assignment No 1, What role is played by philosophy in the development of educational curriculum, Discuss the aims of education provided by the philosophy of realism

 AIOU B.Ed Philosophy 8609 Autumn 2023 Solved Assignment No 1


AIOU B.Ed Philosophy 8609 Autumn 2023 Solved Assignment No 1,How does existentialism criticize the philosophies of idealism and naturalism, What is deductive reasoning? How does it correspond to rationalism
AIOU B.Ed Philosophy 8609 Autumn 2023 Solved Assignment No 1, What role is played by philosophy in the development of educational curriculum, Discuss the aims of education provided by the philosophy of realism

Q.1      What role is played by philosophy in the development of educational curriculum?

Answer: 1. Basics of curriculum development

Philosophy plays an important role in curriculum development. According to educational theorists such as Orstein Hunkins, philosophy is the basic guide and framework for designing the content and structure of the curriculum.

2. Philosophical foundations

Philosophical foundations are central to curriculum development. It helps teachers to articulate the beliefs, arguments, hypotheses and values that underlie the content and methods of education. Philosophy provides the basic principles that guide decision-making in the curriculum development process.

3. Establish educational goals and values

Philosophical inquiries in curriculum studies help to express the main aims of education. It affects the recognition and definition of educational goals and shapes the values that teachers want to convey to students.

4. Ethical quality and social impact

The goal of the teacher is to develop the moral qualities of the students and make them valuable members of the society when teaching philosophy. This reflects that philosophical thoughts transcend the academic realm and emphasize the social impact of education.

5. Interrelationship of philosophy

Philosophy acts as a bridge and connects philosophy education, educational philosophy and general philosophy. It provides a coherent and integrated approach to curriculum development that coordinates different aspects of the learning process.

6. The nature, goals and problems of education

Educational philosophy, a branch of applied philosophy, studies the nature, goals and problems of education. This broader perspective highlights the broad role of philosophy in shaping educational systems and practices.

7. Curriculum-based impact

Philosophy influences decisions about the subjects to be taught and forms the core content of the curriculum. It determines what teachers consider important for a well-rounded education and influences the choice and orientation of subjects.

8. Basis for decision-making

This philosophy provides a foundation for curriculum decisions and guides teachers, especially curriculum specialists, to make informed decisions. This helps them navigate the different alternatives and ensures that decisions are in line with the philosophical foundations of the educational institution.

Q.2   Discuss the aims of education provided by the philosophy of realism.

Answer: Realism in education encompasses a set of goals that revolve around providing a practical and comprehensive understanding of the world. Based on the belief that knowledge reflects the real world, the philosophy of realism defines the following educational goals:


Knowledge of reality: One of the main goals of realist education is to provide students with a deep and accurate understanding of reality. It involves sharing knowledge about human nature, society, motivations, and institutions. Realism advocates a curriculum appropriate to the real situation, providing students with in-depth knowledge of the complexities of the real world.


Development of the senses: Realistic education aims to develop and train the student's mind through various experiences. Philosophy aims to develop students' sensory perceptions by exposing them to different situations and introducing them to the nuances of the world around them.


Holistic Development: Neorealists, a branch of realism, extend this concept to education by emphasizing the holistic development of the subject. The aim is to promote holistic development that includes physical, intellectual and emotional aspects. This is in line with philosophy's goal of preparing people for a well-rounded life.


Practical knowledge and skills: Realism suggests that education should provide students with practical knowledge and skills that can be used in real life. Emphasis is placed on teaching methods that help students discover objective truths and encourage the acquisition of practical problem-solving skills [6].


Problem solving and happiness: Another aim of realistic education is to ensure that students can cope with problems effectively and derive happiness from life. It reflects the practical orientation of philosophy, which aims to prepare people for the challenges and pleasures of real experiences.


Focused on presenting the world as it is and preparing people for practical life, educational realism sets goals that prioritize a comprehensive understanding of reality, holistic development, and practical skills to deal with the complexities of life.


Q.3 Compare the role of teacher supported by the philosophies of realism and naturalism?

The role of the teacher in the philosophy of realism and naturalism differs significantly:


Authority and Competence: Realism emphasizes that the teacher's role is one of authority. Realist teachers are expected to have a thorough knowledge of the methods and facts used in the given profession.

Knowledge brokers: In realism, teachers act as knowledge brokers, guiding students through established methods and specific content in the field. They present information in a structured and authoritative manner.


Observer and Leader: In Naturalism, the teacher assumes the role of observer. They act more as facilitators, allowing students to explore and learn from their natural environment and experiences.

Set the stage: Science teachers set the stage for learning by creating an environment where students can observe and interact with the natural world. They facilitate the learning experience rather than being the primary source of information.

Q.4 How does existentialism criticize the philosophies of idealism and naturalism?

Answer: Existentialism as a philosophical movement criticizes the philosophies of idealism and naturalism on several grounds and questions their views on human existence, personal freedom, and the nature of reality.

Existentialism vs. Idealism:

Rejection of universality: Existentialism challenges the idea of idealistic universality. While idealism asserts that humanity is defined by universal elements, existentialism rejects this idea. Existentialists argue that people are unique and there is no universal essence that defines human existence. Each person's experiences and decisions shape their reality and emphasize the importance of subjective, individual existence. Idealism often subordinates individual freedom to the common good. Existentialism, on the contrary, attaches great importance to the freedom and responsibility of the individual. Existentialists argue that people are free to make decisions regardless of general principles or predetermined norms, with an emphasis on personal choice and autonomy.

Existentialism vs. Naturalism:

Criticism of Determinism: Existentialism strongly rejects the deterministic view of naturalism. Naturalism assumes that human actions are dictated by external forces such as biology or the environment. Existentialism, on the other hand, affirms human freedom and the ability to make decisions independent of deterministic influences. Existentialists reject the idea that people are simply products of their circumstances and emphasize the importance of personal responsibility.

Emphasis on individual experience: Naturalism often takes an objective, deterministic view of human behavior and focuses on external factors that shape personality. Existentialism challenges this by emphasizing the subjective and unique experience of the individual. Existentialists argue that personal experiences and choices are critical to defining human existence and reject the reduction of human life to predetermined external factors.

In short, existentialism criticizes idealism for its universalizing tendencies and suppression of individual freedom, emphasizing the uniqueness of each human existence. He challenges naturalism by rejecting determinism and emphasizing the importance of individual experience and choice in defining human existence. With its focus on subjective reality and personal responsibility, existentialism is itself a philosophical perspective that offers an alternative to idealism and naturalism.

Q.5 What is deductive reasoning? How does it correspond to rationalism?

Deductive reasoning is a form of logical reasoning in which conclusions are drawn by applying general principles or assumptions to specific situations. In deductive reasoning, if the premises are true and the logical structure is correct, the conclusion must be true. It goes from general to specific, ensuring that conclusions follow logically from the information presented.

Consequently, deductive reasoning is consistent with the principles of rationalism. Rationalism is a philosophical view that emphasizes reason and intellectual ability as the primary source of knowledge. Deductive reasoning embraces rationalistic ideals and relies on the natural ability to reason and draw logical conclusions. Rationalism believes that some truths can be known a priori, independent of sense experience, and drawing conclusions from established principles is consistent with this view.

Deductive reasoning involves determining the validity of an argument through logical structure, emphasizing the role of ideas and natural reasoning. This process is characterized by clarity and certainty, two qualities highly valued in rationalistic thought. Rationalism involves not only deductive reasoning but also the broader idea that the human mind is a reliable guide to understanding the world.

Basically, deductive reasoning is a practical manifestation of rationalist philosophy that demonstrates the ability of the human intellect to extract new knowledge from existing truths. It offers a structured and systematic approach to thinking and reflects the rationalist belief in the primacy of reason as a means of acquiring knowledge.

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