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AIOU B,ed CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 8603 Solved assignment Spring 2021

 Allama Iqbal Open University

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AIOU B,ed CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 8603 Solved Spring 2021

Q 1 Describe the Nature of Aims and Objectives in curriculum development. Explain your answer with practical examples.


The Significance of Aims. Goals and Objectives

Aims provide a synoptic view of what we expect education hole Their major function is to provided purpose and direction 10 The whole educational system. (National Education Policy. 1979.p.l). Unless aims ore first clearly stated. no educational programmed can be meaningfully conceived. planned and initialed. Actually aims act as guiding principles and highlight the major emphases for central concerns of any system. Hence, knowledge of aims is indispensable to curriculum planners and other related groups.

American education is wedded by and large to the production of democratic and pragmatic individuals. while the socialist system endeavors to produce true "socialists". You can see the typical stamp in the end- products of the various school systems. And different systems may operate even within the same country. This is so because aims help t0 unify different educational programmers’ and objectives. Jamia Ashrafia (a religious Muslim University) and Forman Christian College, separated only by the Gulberg Canal in Lahore, represent two different viewpoints. Each entertains a peculiar outlook that is personified in the lives the youth ender their care. This indicates the powerful role of aims in education. be it Eastern, or Western, public or the private. This different sets of aims represent ' 'color schemes" and curriculum developers and teachers should be alert to the and implications of such schemes.

As for the goals of education.  Specific objectives can be of use in many ways. Firstly, they provide clear guidance in the selection of content and leaning experiences. Secondly, they classify the how the content IS to be used types of powers and capacities to be developed in learner and with what purpose in view. Thirdly. they provide a common and consistent focus for varied curricular activities. hopefully. the multiplicity of subjects and of teachingapproaches may be unified through objectives without which they will simply appear to be discrete and disjointed parts of an education programme. Lastly, they guide us in evaluating the output by providing a relevant and clear set of criteria (Taba, 1962, pp. 196-199). Thus aims. goals and objectives render positive service to all concerned. especially to curriculum planners and teachers.

The Classification of Aims, Goals and Objectives

Generally Speaking. A vertical hierarchy of three broad categories—aims, goals and objectives is usually mentioned in books on curriculum and education. However, many eminent writers, particularly in the field of curriculum. Prefer to use pairs of terms like 'aims and objective' or •goals and objectives'. perhaps. to simplify the process of objectives formulation. Hilda tabaBlooom and his associates, Michealis. Grossmjan and Scott may be cited as writers who exemplify this approach.

Document entitled "Goals and Ailms to Education" (ministry of Education, 1977.p.2), treated aims as something intermediary between goals and objectives. Aims being mainly concerned with the major stages of education: while the term 'goals' was used to refer to overall general statements of the purposes of Pakistani education. One the other hand. most of the curriculum experts and philosophers accept that aims are more general than goals. Ivor K.; Davies (1976.pp.1 1-14), Robert S. Zais (1976,p.305) and many other writers forcefully represent the latter view. and it is this approach, which considers aims, goals and objectives as a hierarchy, which is adopted in this unit.

The Nature of Aims

Curriculum aim refer to general statements that describes expected life of outcomes based on some value scheme borrowed from philosophy, consciously or unconsciouslv. Their distinctive quality is that they are not directly related to school or classroom outcomes. "Human Survival" "self-realization" and "ethical character" are examples of a few curriculum aims. Aims are thus remote and long-range and have to be converted into more immediate and specific school outcomes if they are to be realized in actual practice (Zains, 1976, p. 306)

An aim give shape and direction to a set of more detailed intentions for the future. They are just a starting point and represent an ideal, an aspiration and a direction which education system should take in general. Thus they act as a guide to action and provide a general frame works for the overall educational process (Davies, 1976. p. 12). Since they are principally concerned with larger ends and purposes they act as unifying threads for different programmes and activities, they are relatively in number but are broad in scope and applicabilitv.

They have to be clearly defined from a ' 'good life" or educated citizens admit of sex era) Interpretations that vary from age-to-age and from nation-to-nation even during (he sanu.» period. Thus an aim needs 10 be clearly defined, interpreted and explained with reference to the national ideology and socio-political climate obtaining in a country (Sharif, 1964. pp. 40-45). Besides, an aim has to be analyzed and broken down into its constituent parts for its practical realization and accomplishment.

 In brief. Statements of aims just provde overall direction and guidance to a school system: but they are not always helpful to teachers in classroom instruction or evalualtion. They are basically meant to provide direction to policy-makers at different levels national, provincial and local. Hence they arc not valid for specific and concrete action (Bloom, 1971, p.21).

Examples of Aims

Harry S. Broudy classified aims under four categories:

1.       Value pattern

2.       Social organization

3.       Social roles and

4.       Life style.(Zais, 1976. pp.307-308).

Value Pattern

This is the general category which actively influences the character of aims in the other three categories. Aims in this category represent a philosophical position and view- pont. If the central aim is the development of Islamic character, all other categories would be geared to the realization of this pivotal value.

Social Organization

This refers to "patterned relations of individuals and groups" (Broom and Selznick, 1958.p. 14). The way people behave is largely determined by their relations to each other and by their membership of different groups. Actually social organization is a network of relationships of individuals and groups that may impede or develop a social philosophy or view point. No set of aims can prove fruitful until il is interwoven into the entire fabric of social organization.

Social Roles

A social role refers to “pattern of behavior associated with a distinctive social position" such as the position of a mother, teacher, administrator, employer or student etc. (Broom and Selznick, 1968,pp.12-13). Aims specifying preferred social roles would offer a particular set of qualities to be developed in parents, teachers, family members, neighbours, citizens and officials which are in consonance with the national ideology, The Prophet of Islam (Peace Be Upon Him) is the best model of Muslims.  Quran exhorts believers to best model for the Muslims assimilate this model into their personality.

Life style

Tins refers to the way in which one lives one's life. It is the practical manifestation of one-s preferred value pattern. You can see a variety of life styles in any society for example that of a businessman, a gypsy or a hippy. The Eastern life style is very different form that in the West. However, each ideology attempts to develop, on the whole, a typical life style with reasonable scope for variation and spontaneity within its cultural framework. In brief the life style must be in consonance with the spirit of the central value pattern.

Q 2 Discuss the process adopted for curriculum development in Pakistan. Which techniques are used for curriculum evaluation? Discuss with examples.


Education in Pakistan

In Pakistan, basically the entire problems stem from the fact that during the days of foreign rule, the colonialists devised an educational system which would, on the one hand, reduce the productivity of the locals and thus enhance their dependence on foreign sources and, on the other, produce people who would have a respect for the foreign culture and way of life and would make a positive contribution toward its perpetuation and continuance.

Thus with the imposition of this system on us, education, which was in the hands of foreigners, lost its contact and linkage with the masses and the socio-economic context in which they lived. The content of education became a source of cultural alienation so that its recipients became strangers to their own society and lost touch with their needs. They were ignorant of the problems faced by the masses. Education became counter- productive, theoretical and academic with no roots in the community. This is It:

Imagine a far-flung area in rural setting situated in the mountains. The areas is by and large, barren and, therefore, the population is very thinly scattered. Most of the inhabitants depend for their livelihood upon cattle grazing and reading. Water is source of water is a couple of kilometers away. During the winter, cold is very severe most often well below freezing point at night. At night, the winds howl and groan. Occasionally, one could hear the cry of jackals. Around that place, there are scattered fields where some corn and wheat is grown there is no rain, the land remains barren.

In an area like this imagine a small hut which accommodates a family of five children, mother and father. During winter, at night the cattle also live inside the hut. On a winter night the cold is severe. The winds are howling. Outside it is all dark. Inside the hut there is complete dark. One of the five children of the family is suffering from high fever and is coughing continuously. Every time there is a fit of cough; one has the feeling that the child's breathing is going to be choked to a point that he may expire. The breathing of the child is irregular and spasmodic. It groans and whistles. Because of the fever and cough, the child has not taken anything for the last two days. In any case, there is not very much with the family that the child could eat. The mother of the child has not slept for a few nights because she has been sitting night after night holding the child in her lap. The child's lips are dry and parched and there is no water to moisten them. The occasional tear that trickles down the mother's eye, moistens the child's lips.

In the absence of any treatment or medicine, the mother is giving the child emotional Support to recover and is praying to God for help. The father is taking care of the other children who are uncomfortably huddled in one torn blanket. There is nothing that the parents can do to save the child who is involved in a life and death struggle for the last 24 hours. The parents and other children are anxiously watching the struggle, but are helpless. The family is surrounded with hunger, poverty, ignorance and with the shadow of death, looming large on it. There is complete darkness all round the darkness of the night and the darkness of Ignorance.


Broadly speaking the term evaluation refers to the process undertaken to ascertain as to what extent the aims and objectives of a particular programme in education have been achieved. And if the objectives have not been achieved, what have been the possible hurdles in achieving the desired objectives. Before we discuss the concept of evaluation with reference to curriculum, it seems appropriate to briefly describe the difference between evaluation and measurement. These procedures are useful in guiding the thinking of those who are carrying out the evaluation. The steps which have to be evolved by careful and intensive analysis of the types of the tasks involved. While the strategy for curriculum evaluation should be adjusted according to the particular problems and situations under consideration, certain models which will be described in this unit can play a very important part in the process. Curriculum evaluation should not only be a means judging educational effectiveness, but also if applied critically and intelligently, should lead to useful decisions that can serve as a powerful force to improve the educational process as well.


When curricular innovations are introduced, it is an important task of educators to determine their effectiveness. An assessment of any new programme has to be made to find out if the desired outcomes are being achieved; and to what extent, if at all, it results in significantly better learning than the existing programme. The use of evaluation techniques should enable curriculum workers to make steady progress in improving the curriculum.

The major aims of curriculum evaluation may thus be summarized as follows:

1.       to determine the outcomes of a programme;

2.       to help in deciding whether to accept or reject a programme;

3.       to ascertain the need for the revision of the course content;

4.       to help in further development of the curriculum materials for continuities


Curriculum so that necessary changes can be made in the instructional programme. In testing and measurement, greater emphasis is placed upon those characteristics that are easy to quantify and thus important outcomes such as problem solving, creativity, critical thinking, work habits, and cultural appreciations tend to be neglected. Uncritical use of testing and heavy reliance on test results have caused a widespread spurious sense of certainty about educational accomplishments. Evaluation, however, is aimed at measuring all the educational outcomes, not just those which lend themselves easily to quantification.

The purposes of evaluation for curriculum innovations include the collection of information to be used as:

1.       Feedback to the innovators for further revision of materials and methods;

2.       input for decision-making in the course;

3.       Empirical data on behavior changes under curriculum treatment. 

Professional educators who implement the curricula should be held accountable for successful achievement of educational outcomes. This involves:

Developing improved, more comprehensive measurements of pupil performance, making analysis of the contributions made to the pupils' performance by educators, administrators, planners, institutions and other agencies in the educational process.



Q 3 Analyze the curriculum of teacher education programs in distance

Education. Identify essential communication skills for teacher that should be a part of curriculum and how?


What processes take place in curriculum development?

It also shows the synergies and links between the four main stages of curriculum development: (l) planning, (II) content and methods, (III) implementation, and (IV) evaluation and reporting.

Keep developing: a detailed overview and 6 steps

Whether you are a high school teacher or a college professor, you know that developing an effective curriculum is essential to successful education. As any teacher knows, the literature and philosophy surrounding the concept of the curriculum has evolved over the years. Today, the term can be widely used to refer to the whole course syllabus, including learning objectives, learning strategies, materials and assessments.

In general, curriculum development is the process by which a teacher or institution prepares or approves a course plan. Because there are many of them

Finding updated best practices for navigating noisy environments can be difficult. There are also many schools on how best to approach the curriculum development process. Can you know who to listen to with the tips available to write a meaningful summary for you and your curriculum?

What are the curriculum evaluation methods?

Curriculum specific assessment methods

• Curriculum evaluation.

• Evaluation is the process of collecting data about a program to determine its value or value in order to decide whether to approve, reject, or review the program.

1. Curriculum evaluation Special methods of curriculum evaluation

2. Evaluation is the process of collecting data about a program to determine its value or value in order to decide whether to approve, reject or review the program. Programs are evaluated to answer questions and concerns from various parties.


I) Desired observation Gather precise information on how the program actually works, especially in terms of processes. It is a method by which one or more people monitor what is happening in real life in certain situations. It is used to assess people's open behavior in controlled and uncontrolled situations.

4. Types of observation. Unstructured observation.

 • Natural or visible observations that collect different types of information. • The observer does not manipulate or control anything while in the observation area.

• The observer enters the observation area and sees and records something in the natural environment.

• Practice and skill, the observer should focus on decision making and decision making and fixing what is considered important.

Types of observations Structured observation

 • Assessors monitor probabilities in a structured environment, knowing the person (s) being viewed.

• For example, the assessor may monitor the student's behavior in a sample lesson.

• The main disadvantage of this type of observation is that it is unnatural and the behavior of the observed people may not correspond to the behavior in the natural environment. People may behave the way they think, not the way they normally behave.

5. INFORMATION RELATING TO THE DESCRIPTION OF OBSERVATIONS - Comments in this area - Observation plans, checklist - Audio recording - Video recording

What teaching methods are available?

There are four generally accepted organizational approaches to curriculum development: simple to complex, prerequisite, distance learning and chronological learning. Of course, learn from simple to complex. The curriculum is designed so that simpler concepts are presented before more complex ones.

What assessment methods are available?

Different assessment methods

• Formative assessments. Formative assessments are assessments that occur in the process.

• Summary of changes. The final evaluation will take place at the end of the program.

• Process evaluation.

• Impact assessment.

• Evaluation of results.


Q. 4 Discuss in detail the education system of United State of America and United Kingdom. What procedure is followed in curriculum development and its implementation in these countries?


The people of the United States, rich in land, people and natural resources, and technologically advanced, have a high standard of living and lead the countries of the world to the south. Indigenous peoples consist of the descendants of slaves imported from Africa during the colonial and post-colonial years, as well as Indians and immigrants from Britain, Germany, Scandinavia, southern and eastern Europe, and central and southern America. The combination of geographical and demographic characteristics leads to great differences from one part of the country to another. Education systems and structures also vary widely across the country.

Education System

Each state offers a free kindergarten and a 12-year public school system. Education is compulsory between the ages of 6-7 and 16, although laws vary from country to country. Depending on the location, different structural models are used; kindergarten plus primary school 1-8, where a four-year high school is attended; Kindergarten plus six basic schools, followed by a three-year high school and a three-year high school (sometimes a six-year high school or a relatively new kindergarten plus four or five basic school classes, a four-year high school and a four-year high school) All stereotypes

Historically, education has been considered a national and local responsibility, but the federal government has been involved at all levels since 1972. The federal government supports Indian education, finances the education of veterans and provides credit. The Federal Ministry of Education, headed by the Cabinet Secretary, is responsible for implementing government policy.

Study program

Typically, the practical responsibility for school management lies with smaller entities, such as states and districts, where 18,200 local districts are responsible for day-to-day management. The strong tradition of local autonomy and the pluralism of society influence the curriculum. There is no official national program. The state ministry of education creates the curriculum with different originality, leaving room for local and individual differences. Subject experts, school leaders and teachers are involved in the development of research and examination programs. The main subjects taught at all levels of the school system are English, mathematics, social studies, science, music, art and physical education.

As a result of technological developments, new teaching methodologies have been introduced in education, such as programmed learning, language laboratories and computer-based learning. Existing social issues came into the curriculum, especially at secondary level, in the form of new topics such as ethical education, consumer and environmental education, drug and alcohol abuse. The rules for moving from one class to another depend on the decisions of the country or territory: a secondary school student has to repeat a year after a poor performance, but the promotion to the basic level takes place automatically.


Curriculum Development In England


The United Kingdom is located on the islands of the western part of the European continental shelf. Immigrants from all over the world have had a significant impact on the UK's education systems. Ethnic minorities are concentrated in certain large urban areas, especially in London, and demand that the system recognize their special needs, especially in terms of language. and cultural differences.

Education System

Education in the United Kingdom is considered to be a publicly administered system in the country. Most of the day-to-day activities are in the hands of local educational institutions (LEAs).

Study program

Previously, there was no nationally defined curriculum, but the examination boards reviewing the general education certificate had a unifying effect on what was taught in schools. His Majesty's school inspectors were accountable to the Minister of Education. They researched and reported on all aspects of education, including the curriculum. However, the government introduced the national program in 1989.

Until 1988, upper secondary school students were able to take examinations in various subjects, which resulted in a secondary education certificate (CSE) or a higher education certificate (level O). In 1988, these two systems were abolished and replaced by the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE).

Q.5 Write short notes on the following:

1.     Application of Heuristic Problem Solving Method

2.     Integrated approach to curriculum development

3.     Aims of Curriculum Evaluation

4.     Individual Need and National Curriculum

1. Apply an intuitive method of troubleshooting

Heuristic techniques are not a formal problem-solving model, but they can be used as an approach to problem-solving in situations where solutions are not expected to provide a perfect or optimal solution. Examples of heuristics are:

What is intuitive?

An intuitive or heuristic technique is any problem-solving approach that uses a different practical or quick method to create solutions that are not optimal, but sufficient for a framework or a limited period of time. Heuristics tend to be flexible and are used to make quick decisions, especially when it is impossible or impractical to find the optimal solution and when working with complex data.

Advantages and disadvantages of using heuristics

Intuitive methods facilitate timely decisions. Analysts in every field use ground rules to solve the problem, such as smart forecasting, trial and error, the elimination process, historical formula, and historical data analysis. It makes decision making easier and faster with pretty good heuristics, shortcuts, and calculations. There are trade-offs in the use of heuristics that make the approach skewed and miscalculated. The user's final decision may not be the optimal or best solution, the decision made may be wrong, and the selected data may be insufficient (thus causing the wrong problem solution). For example, duplicate investors often mimic the investment model of successful investment managers to avoid stock research and related quantitative and qualitative information.

An intuitive example

The known method of solving shortcuts in troubleshooting is called representative heuristics. Representation uses mental abbreviations to make decisions based on past events or characteristics that represent or are similar to the current situation. For example, Fast Food ABC expanded its operations in India and the share price went up.

2. An integrated approach to curriculum development

The integrated curriculum refers to learning synthesized in traditional subject areas and learning experiences that reinforce each other. This approach increases the child's ability to transfer his or her learning to other contexts.

What is an integrated approach to the curriculum?

An integrated curriculum is defined as one that combines different fields of study across subject boundaries and emphasizes unifying concepts. Integration focuses on making connections for students, allowing them to engage in important and meaningful activities that can be connected to real life. June 28, 2020

Integrated curriculum

I remember teaching in class and the subjects were taught separately. For example, I was taught a reading certificate only in a reading or math course only in a math class, but not in other courses. I have often wondered why some mathematical concepts are not taught in the natural sciences because there seems to be a connection between them. Has it ever happened to you?


I wonder why curriculum integration is important? Think about how much you can learn in the classroom, where you teach math, science and reading in one lesson, or teach a subject unit that focuses on cultural diversity and covers key content areas. When teaching through the integrated curriculum, my students showed more and more signs of survival than when the integrated curriculum was not implemented. This is because integrated curricular approaches can link them more tightly to content and create real connections.

What is an integrated approach?

An integrated approach is an approach in which students learn by doing in a student-centered environment for the benefit of the student. This allows students to participate in targeted and important lessons. • encourages students to consider interrelationships and interrelationships between curricular areas.

What is an example of an established resume?

The integration of reading, writing and oral communication into the art of language is a common example. Teachers often integrate history, geography, economics and government into an interdisciplinary program of social studies.

3. Objectives of Curriculum Evaluation


When innovating in curriculum, it is important for teachers to determine their effectiveness. Each new program should be evaluated to see if the desired results have been achieved; and if so, to what extent is it significantly better expressed in teaching than the current curriculum? The use of assessment methods should enable curriculum professionals to make continuous progress in curriculum development.


Continue making the necessary changes to your resume. Testing and evaluation places more emphasis on characteristics that are easy to measure and therefore often overlook important results such as problem solving, creativity, critical thinking, work habits and cultural preferences. Critical use of the test and overconfidence in test results have led to a widespread false sense of confidence in school results. However, assessment aims to measure all educational outcomes, not just those that are easily quantifiable.

The objectives of assessing curriculum innovation include collecting information used for the following purposes:

1. Feedback from innovators for further study of materials and methods;

Decision making for the 2nd year;

2. Empirical evidence on behavioral disorders in the curriculum.

Professional teachers who deliver the curriculum should be held accountable for achieving educational outcomes. This contains:

3. Individual needs and national curricula

Some of these, such as food, sleep and water, are basic needs that affect the physical aspects of behavior and are considered uneducated. ... These needs are biological and relatively constant.

What are the individual training needs?

Student needs represent the gap between what the student wants to achieve based on their learning experience and their current knowledge, skills and enthusiasm (Noessel, 2003). Table 1 lists potential learning needs in four different areas: cognitive, social, affective, and psychomotor.

Students gather relevant information from a person to determine the person's general needs and use the information gained from this assessment to develop a plan that improves the person's overall health and well-being. Scenario: You are a health and social care support trainer. Your mentor has been asked to detail an individualized action plan to help them improve their overall health and wellness.

What is the purpose of the national curriculum?

The National Curriculum introduces students to the basics of how to become an educated citizen. Its goals are: “To embody rigor and high standards and to ensure consistency with what is taught in schools. Ensure that all children are taught the basics of basic disciplines. "

What is Pakistan's national curriculum?

The idea behind Pakistan's only Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) curriculum for all schools, including public schools, private schools and even religious seminars, is to ensure "all children enjoy rights and equality in quality education." ... Website of the Federal Ministry of Education e. 03-May-2021

What are the objectives of the national curriculum?

The National Curriculum provides students with an introduction to the basic knowledge needed to become an educated citizen. Sphere:

• “embody rigor and high standards and create consistency with what is taught in schools.

• ensure that all children are taught basic skills in core subjects

"Go beyond this nature to give teachers more freedom to use their professionalism and knowledge to help all children reach their potential."


What are the main components of a national curriculum?

development and review of curricula; (ii) textbooks and teaching materials; (iii) teacher training and education; (iv) teaching materials and school environment; (v) assessment and response; and (vi) inclusion of a coordination mechanism. Federation divisions, public and private, and others.


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