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AIOU B.Ed General Science in Schools 8638 Assignment 2 solved pdf

Assignment No. 2


General Science in Schools

Course Code: 8638


Semester Spring 2021 Program: B.Ed (1.5 Years)



Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad

8638 Assignment-2

Question 1:


Develop lesson plan in  the basis  of Five-E Model  on any one of the following topics: 1. Enzymes, 2. Evaporation, 3. Newton’s Law, 4. Solution of Simulation Equation.



Lesson Plan


“A lesson plan is a teacher’s everyday guide designed for what students require to learn and how it will be trained, and in what way learning will be dignified.”

Five-E Model (Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate)


5E Model of teaching science aids to help vigorous, cooperative and inquiry based learning. These are:

·         Engage: students become attracted, raise questions, and give attention on marked concepts.

·           Explore: here students cooperate with things and each other.

·         Explain: students here progress with explanations that signify their understandings of objective and main concepts.

·         Elaborate: Students apply their understandings here to a new condition.

·         Evaluate: Students evaluate and assess what they have learned and how they have learned it.

Lesson Plan as Five-E Model on “Enzymes”


My 5-E Model based lesson Plan for enzymes in front of science students is given below:


Engage Stage:

§  I shall excite student about this term and create curiosity by asking students some interesting and daily routine questions. E.g. you eat food than what happen to food? , you work all day from where does you get this energy?

§  Give students opportunity to tell what they know about enzymes.

§  In this way I shall be able to find out the stage of students mentality for the enzymes.

§  I shall also give students free hand to ask questions about this topic.


Explore Stage:


§  I shall give some time to students to do conversation about enzymes and join the links about the topics. In this way students will communicate each other and will try to find out answers of my questions and other students questions as well.

§  While they were doing this I shall observe them keenly to know that how much class students know about it and talk freely with each other and up to how much they reached the concepts.

Explain Stage:


§  Then I shall encourage students to tell their personal experience. Moreover I shall also give them time period of 1-2 days to observe their body metabolism pattern, eating way and energy gain through it.

§  I shall also ask questions to students for their understanding and explain their understood concepts.

§  If any student will give me any answer than I shall ask him to give proof with example. It will help other students to understand.

§  Then I shall come to the theoretical terms to give words to the students, for example: if any student will say “energy”, I shall introduce term “ATP” that stands for Adenosine tri Phosphate. Similarly for “reactions of body” I shall introduce term “Metabolism”.

Elaborate Stage:


§  In the next stage, I shall join the concepts of students using terminology and basic words related to enzymes.

§  By encouraging students to use this enzyme terminology in their concepts and ideas about what they have in mind about enzymes.

§  Then I shall bound students to use this enzyme terminology after they have got the idea.

§  Then I shall ask students some reasonable questions from previous discussed data so that they are able to conclude more strong concepts. Questions will include like following: Difference between anabolism and catabolism? How many enzymes do we have? How enzymes work? Enzymes are made up of which material?

Evaluate Stage:


§  In the last stage I shall give students a platform to demonstrate their learning and concepts about enzymes, activity of enzymes action and factors that affect the action of enzyme.

§  Then I shall ask students to extract the unique concepts that all students have and don not forget it.

§  Then I shall encourage those students that participate more and those that try to participate to some extent.



Question 2:


What are different types of Instructional Aids in Science Education? How text books of Science subjects are best instrumental tools. Justify your answer with the help of examples.



Instructional Aids in Science Education


Instructional aids are the devices that help a teacher in the teaching process for students learning. Instructional aids are not self-sufficient; they are additional training devices. The significant factor is that instructional aids supplement, support, and help studies.

Types of Instructional Aids


Use of models, charts and some other material in the science subject classroom and laboratory to assist the teaching and learning process or to style the lesson further expressive for students. All these things are called Instructional Aids. We are also aware of another chief Instructional Aid called textbook.

We categorize the instructional aids in numerous ways but the more general types are given below:

1.     Software and Hardware


The program recorded on the CD (Compact disks), Cassette, Hard disk, or like the words printed on the books and charts etc. are the software. On the other hand the Compact Disk itself, Hard disk, book and charts etc., are the examples of hardware.

2.     Audio aids


This includes appliances like radio and tape recorders through which audio type message can be gained.

3.     Visual aids:


This type of instructional aid includes charts, models, white boards, chalk board, photographs, artworks, tables or graphs, globes, maps, posters and museum etc.

4.     Audio-Visual


As the name indicates it will include those things that are related to listening and sight just like computer programs, television, pictures demonstration in multimedia, and videotapes etc.

5.     Field trips


Very interesting kind of instructional aid having educational tours to industries or factories other institutes, national parks and museum, etc.

6.     Printed material


It also include some non-noticeable things like textbook, reference books, teacher’s notes, workbooks, newspapers, magazines, research articles, encyclopedias etc.

Textbook as an Instructional Aid


“A textbook is a assemblage of the information, principles and concepts of a particular topic or a course.”

It is generally written by 1 to many persons as educators, college professors, or education specialists who are authorities in a precise field. Majority of the textbooks are supplemented by teacher guides that deliver you with supplemental teaching resource, ideas, and actions to use all over the academic year. It also covers a number of exercises to evaluate the performance of the individual after the end of each lesson.

The textbook reflects as the most significant instructional aid for the student besides for the teacher. Through this aid the teacher and scholar may be able to reach the objectives of the curriculum. A textbook is merely as good as the teacher who habits it. It is significant to recall that a textbook is a very significant tool, in teaching resource. Sometimes, teachers over-rely on textbooks and don't consider other aids or other materials for the classroom. Some teachers reject a textbook methodology to learning as the textbook is old-fashioned or inadequately covers a topic or subject area.

Examples of Textbook as a Beneficial Instructional Aid.


Textbook delivers many advantages in the classroom, some of these exemplary benefits are given below:

§  Textbooks are particularly helpful for beginning teachers. The material to be covered and the strategy of each object lesson are sensibly spelled out in every aspect.

§  Textbooks deliver organized units of work. A textbook gives you all the strategies and lessons you want to cover a topic deeply.

§  A Series textbook offers you with a stable, sequential demonstration of information.

§  Textbooks are a detailed arrangement of teaching processes that tell why to do and what to do or when to do it or how to do it. There are no revelations everything is sensibly spelled out.

§  Textbooks offer administrators and educators with a complete package for learning.

§  Most of the textbooks are transcribed in series and characteristically based on the up-to- date research and teaching policies.

§  Good textbooks are outstanding teaching aids. They are a vast resource for both educators and pupils.

Question 3:


Explain purpose and need of Assessment on Science Education?






Assessment can be defined as,


“Assessment is an essential and vital part of teaching-learning process that provides feedback on advancement over and done with the assessment period to both students and teachers.”

Purpose of Assessment on Science Education


Assessment is a process of gathering suggestion of what students recognize and can do. A comprehensive assessment procedure can be used by instructors to evaluate student willingness for new content and it measures the student improvement during a lesson, calculate student learning and deliver students self-evaluative approaches.

Assessment may yield numerous forms such as class discussions, standardized tests, independent reports or group projects. Assessments are strongly associated to curriculum and training, so that a alteration of one involves modifications of the others. Assessments deliver information for regulating lessons conferring to student consequences.

Following are the main purposes that why we assess on science education:

§  Planning of instructional objectives.

§  Selection of the conclusion like selection of students in medical colleges or in engineering universities etc.

§  Cataloging decision that includes classifying classes into science, arts or in humanities etc.

§  Pre assess students’ requirements either we classify a child in science class or not.

§  Monitor students’ improvement from day to day, weekly and monthly in the class.

§  Analyze learning complications of the students.

§  Progress in science teaching

§  Improvement in learning process.

§  Management and counseling.

§  Decision production.

§  Matching different groups.

§  Recording the progress or poor condition to parents.

§  Estimation of the curricula.


Need of Assessment on Science Education



The assessment procedure is an active tool for collaborating the expectations of the science education system to all apprehensive with science education. Student assessments especially on science education are necessary because:

Text Box: •	Success data collected focus on the science contented that is utmost  significant for students to study.
•	Opportunity to learn data together focus on the most influential indicators.
•	Equal consideration must be given to the assessment of opportunity to learn and to the assessment of student attainment.
•	The ability to purpose scientifically.
•	The aptitude to use science to make personal conclusions and to take positions on social issues.
•	The ability to interconnect effectively about science.

Question 4:


Write importance of Unit Planning and draw a Sketch for any topic from the area of your specialization.





In the educational field, planning can be defined as,


“A process of shaping, forming and designing a plan earlier. It is built on psychosomatic process of thinking to attain the wanted goals in a given time.”

Unit Planning


It can be defined as,


“Unit planning is a process of thoroughly arranging topics in the series of learning practices that are related to achieve the aims carefully composed by methodology and matters.

Importance of Unit Planning


Unit planning delivers with a sense of direction and association that helps you and your students attain important academic gains contained by a specific time period. More precisely, making a plan to extent short term goals has the following benefits:

§  Helps in making Conclusions


A unit plan powers to make conclusions nearby what to teach and how to teach the topic.


§  Progress in Academic Accomplishment


Subsequently taking the time to progress a unit planning is less likely to be side tracked by purposes, activities or lessons that don’t advance the ultimate search for academic accomplishment.

§  Maintains the Speed


A unit plan keeps you on speed to cover your unit goals. It saves time forcing the teacher to maintain pace properly in order to meet the end goals.

§  Increase Students Interest


A unit plan delivers an opportunity to excite student interest through predominant content that is applicable to students as unit planning consider what satisfied will involve your students given their benefits and backgrounds.

Unit Planning on “LIFE PROCESS”


This big topic is taken from Biology subject for grade 10th. Its unit planning is given below:




Major Concepts

Sorting Learning Outcomes

Number of


Teaching Methods

Assessment Techniques


Gaseous Exchange

Gaseous Exchange in Plants Gaseous Exchange in Humans

Respiratory Disorders


Activity, Discussion

Class Test, Chart Making.



Homeostasis in Plants Homeostasis in Humans Urinary System in Humans Disorders of Urinary System


Inquiry, Discussion and Inquiry

MCQ test and Short essay writing


Coordination and Control

Types of Coordination Human Nervous System Endocrine System Disorders of Nervous



Discussion, Activity

Practical performance, MCQ test


Support and Movement

Human Skeleton Joints and its types

Muscles and Movement through it.

Disorders of Skeletal



Activity, Discussion and Model preparation

MCQ test, Practical Presentation.



Conceptual Linkage:


All the topics are the example of life processes which are linked together with Coordination system (Nervous System and Endocrine System). That’s why I shall explain it at first.

The sequence of topics/chapters I shall follow will be:


1)       Coordination and Control

2)       Homeostasis

3)       Support and Movement

4)       Gaseous Exchange.


Concept Map Construction


Each main topic/ chapter has a lot of topics and subtopics to be explained in detail to make it easy for students. I shall follow the following map of terms and important points to teach:









Concepts to be Delivered in each











Coordination Control






Types of Coordination

Introductory     terms




Human Nervous System

Nerve Cell and its types, Division of Nervous    System:     Central      and

Peripheral, Division of Brain.

Endocrine System

Important     Endocrine






pituitary, thyroid etc.





Paralysis, Epilepsy











Homeostasis in Plants

Removal    of       extra Metabolic       wastes,

Adjustment in Plants.

Gases     and Osmotic

Homeostasis in Humans

Skin and Lungs.

Urinary System in Humans

Structure of Kidney, functioning of






Kidney Stones, Renal Failure.










Support Movement






Human Skeleton

Bone and Cartilage, Components of

Human Skeleton.

Joints and its types

Immoveable, Slightly moveable and

Moveable joints.

Muscles and Movement.

Role   of    Tendon    and     Ligament,

Biceps and Triceps muscles.





Osteoporosis, Arthritis.






Gaseous Exchange

Gaseous Exchange in


Important Gases, Stomata and its


Gaseous Exchange in


Structure of   Lungs,   Air   Passage

Way, Mechanism of Breathing.

Respiratory Disorders

Bronchitis, Emphysema, Pneumonia,

Asthma, Lung Cancer.



All the sub topics with their concepts will be divided on days to complete and set as target with two days extra, one for introduction of the chapter and to create interest and the second day for the assessment in the last at the completion of the unit.

Question 5:


Enlist guidelines of Carin and Sund to involve the children in doing Science.






Science can be defined as,


“Knowledge acquired by study or practice.” or "knowledge encompassing the common truths of the process of general laws by observing and testing through scientific methods apprehensive with the world.”

Two philosophers Carin Arthur and Robert B Sund in 1989, presented some guidelines comprising children in “doing science”. These guidelines are given below:

Include students in science built process activities.


Include some activities like observation, taking measurements, experimenting, collaborating, investing, concluding, forming hypotheses, investigating, synthesizing, and estimating, speculating, inducing and creating theories. Students must engage in scientists’ work at their own maturation level.

Teacher must obtain awareness of science and the methods of science and society are dependent.

To help students in considerate how people influence upon on another and their environment, and benefit them to understand the assertiveness and standards of society, thus they can make cognizant decisions.

Involve students in activities linking pursuing answers to problems in our scientific and technological society.

It includes the procedures and active doings of the students that link them up with the scientific answers of the problems. Here problems are related to societal technologies.

Students essentially learn by doing and then reflecting.


Keenly include students in scientific activities so they explore and realize scientific concepts, process and theories, aid them learn how to ponder what they have ended.

Use as many diverse methods to science teaching and learning as teacher can.


Uncover the students to science through influential, viewing, regulatory, listening, evaluation, drawing, hold, and visiting.

Vigorously   include   your   students   in   examination  or   guided  discovery approach to teaching or learning.

A considerate level of teaching and learning pursues to inform a student with relationships between values and evidences.





·         Gagne, R.M. (1977). The condition of learning, 3rd edition new youk: Holt Rienfant and Winston.

·         Gupta V. K. (1995). Teaching and Learning of Science and Technology. Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd.

·         Joyce, B.R. and Weil, M. (1992). Models of Teaching (4th ed.): New Delhi: Prentice Hall.

·         Lesson plan Format: 5E Instructional Model, Retrieved from         4 me

.org/classroom-                 resource/download-lesson-plans/lesson     plan    format-5E-instructional Model.







     The End                           

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