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AIOU B.Ed Critical thinking and reflective practices 8611 solved assignment spring 2021

 Assignment No. 2

Critical Thinking and Reflective  Practices

Course Code: 8611


Semester Spring 2021 Program: B.Ed (1.5 Years)



Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad

Assignment No. 2 (8611)

Question No.1

Describe      in    detail    that    how    practical    is    the    Gibb‟s    cycle    for    the    perspective teacher?

Answer Gibb’s cycle

Gibbs cycle indicates that scholars can associate theory and exercise by maintaining them in a cyclical order of activities namely describing, sensing, assessing, or evaluating, analyzing, concluding and then action planning.

Gibbs Reflective Cycle inspires people to ponder analytically about the practices they had during a precise situation, happening or activity. By using a circle, reflection on those practices can be organized in phases. Gibbs' reflective cycle is very suitable in making people ponder through all the stages of an experience or action.


Professor Graham Gibbs in 1988 published the Reflective Cycle in his book named „Learning by Doing‟. It is a guide book for teaching methods and techniques and by the teachers. The reflective learning cycle offered in the book copies that how students can link theory and exercise through sequencing in a cyclical form of accomplishments named as:

§  Describing

§  Feeling

§  Evaluating

§  Analyzing

§  Concluding

§  Action planning.

This model known as the Gibbs‟ Cycle has been particularly prominent in teacher education platforms. Usually the Gibb's Cycle has its elementary usefulness and benefits are for the people who acquire from different conditions from which they go through, utmost possibly when they are incapable to go about with their strategies.

Gibbs Reflective Cycle

Gibbs 1988, reflective cycle is impartially open and encourages a clear description of the condition, examination of feelings, assessment of the experience, analysis to make logic of the experience, deduction where other selections are considered and reflection upon practice to inspect what you would do uncertainty if the situation get up again. This cycle can be used for our reflective inscription, but if you are expending it then we need to regulate the cycle so that examination fills through each stage.

Advantages of Using Gibbs Cycle

There are several advantages associated with Gibbs' Reflective Cycle.

§  The model is easy to understand and easy to use.

§  It allows you to learn over time based on your experiences.



Using the Gibbs Model for Perspective Teacher

Following are the steps that a teacher can follow using Gibbs cycle practically:


At first, teacher can ask the student to describe the situation in detail. At this stage, teachers simply require to know what occurred and helps in drawing conclusions.




Next, the teacher will encourage student to talk about what he believed and felt during the practice. At this stage, teacher should avoid commenting on the feelings of students.




Now the teacher need to inspire the student in students coaching to look quantitatively that what approaches worked, and which ones didn't.




Once the teacher evaluated the condition, he can help his students to draw conclusions about what happened.





Here teacher should now have some conceivable actions that his students can take to deal with comparable situations more efficiently in the future. In this last stage, teacher need to come up with a strategy so that he can create these changes.








Question No. 2

Select a problem from any school sector and design action research for the solution of its problems.




Action research can be defined as,

Answer Action Research

“Action research states a wide diversity of evaluation, investigation, and analytical methods planned to diagnose difficulties or flaws whether administrative, instructional or academic that helps teachers to progress practical explanations to address them rapidly and proficiently.”

Problem Identification

Though there are many problems in school sectors but I selected government schools to ponder the general problems from where I got a main health and sanitation related basic problem. Many students get diarrhea, typhoid, hepatitis, cholera and mineral deposition related disorders. This

not only affects health issues permanently but also causes temporarily attendance issues as students get ill and do not attend the classes.

All this due to one main problem i.e., “Lack of Drinkable clean Water in School.”

Most of the schools have tap water with low depth water supply system or with toxicity content in the water.

Data collection about Problem

Following things should be noted to collect data about the problem;

o   Data Collection from different government schools need a visit in a city to conclude the percentage of the schools that have clean drinkable water or have not clean drinkable water.

o   Data Collection of the total student‟s number with good health and poor health in the schools.

o   Data collection of the students that take their own water bottles from their houses and don‟t rely on school water.

All the collected data is carefully noted and should write on a notebook. This will help in interpreting the results and analysis of the data.

Organization and Analysis of Data

All the data is collected and noted in word file or hand notebook to save the data that is used for interpretation later. Following type of table will be drawn for this analysis of the collected data:





Schools from where

Data is Collected

Available Clean


Number of Good

Health Students

students that bring

their Water Bottles



































Table type information will give a clear presentation of the collected data as it is the most suitable form of data organization. From here it can be analyzed to conclude results.


Percentage of Available Clean Water in schools= 2/6×100                         33.3% Percentage of Good health students=630/1090×100                                                                               57.8% Percentage of students that bring their water bottles= 580/1090×100 = 53.2%

Interpretation of Data

Following results are drawn from the above data:

o   If we see the results of data analysis it shows that most of the selected schools did not have available clean water. Only two out of six have filter plants that fulfill the need of water purification. Less than half schools (33.3%) have pure water to drink.

o   Students with good health percentage show that our schools students are suffering various disorders which could be due to non-purified water. Near half students are not enjoying good health. Only 57.8% students have good health record.

o   Those students or their parents/guardians that think that school water is not good to drink bring their own water bottles and do not rely on the school water. More than half number of students bring their own water bottles as shown by the percentage i.e., 53.2%

Action Plan

To improve the situation following methods and techniques should be applied:

o   Government should give separate grant for the implantation of filters.

o   New water bores at greater depth should be made.

o   Those schools that cannot afford the above two suggestions, should address to all students to bring their own water bottles.

Data will be collected after the application of above mentioned improvements, and then change will be observed by following the same procedure after a time gap of 6-9 months.


Question No.3

Read an article from a website and present its visual plan/map for critical review.


Critical Review

Critical Review can be defined as,

“Critical review assesses the precision, excellence and originality of research, as well as its significance and demonstration.” Or “An analysis and evaluation in a formal discussion way of an article, book, or any other informative medium based on its implication, content, and quality.”


Visual Map of Critical Review for an Article

This article is taken from website (Google scholar) as my interest fall on this subject that why I selected this one.


Title of the selected article is,

“Microbial Analysis of Indian Flying Fox (Pteropus giganteus) Ejecta Collected from Two Public Parks in Lahore, Pakistan”

Authors Information:

v  Tayiba Latif Gulraiz and Arshad Javid from Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences.

v  Syed Makhdoom Hussain from Department of Zoology, Government College University, Faisalabad.

v  Muhammad Shahbaz and Irfan from Department of Zoology, Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Bagh.

v  Sharoon Daud from Department of Chemistry, Forman Christian College, a Chartered University, Lahore.


Author’s main argument:

Megabats are present in Lahore public parks that may be the source of many bacterial and fungal species that may or may not cause harmful diseases in human population though there bats are not harmful in biting or hunting people as they are of big size.


Introductory details:

Bats are included in the single mammalian group that are capable of real flight and can cross the obstacles unlike other mammals. The fruit bats are significant reservoirs of numerous pathogens, several of which have been testified to be related with many illnesses like rabies.

Ejecta of the fruit bats support a countless diversity of organisms as well as fungi, arthropods, lichens and bacteria. Due to the nearness of bats with human population and domestic animals, it is likely that they had vital role in the disease spread and zoonoses. The connection of bats with human population and with domestic animals are either a direct or an indirect as through many arthropods like ticks and mosquitos.

The fungi linked to bat excreta are frequently restricted to the places where bat guano is often plentiful (Darling, 1906). Bat guano had also testified to comprise useful fungi and bacteria, which act as a natural fungicide to guard plants from ailments. Bacteria and fungi play significant role to sustain soil health. Bacteria are compulsory for plant growth on new fresh sediments.


Microbial examination of Indian flying fox, (Pteropus giganteus) waste roosting at Jinnah and Lalazar Gardens, Lahore was collected from January, to December, 2011 with a overall 12 fungal and 12 bacterial genera were isolated. Four fungal genus (Candida, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Saccharomyces) and 2 bacterial genera (Nocardia and Klebsiella) were isolated from bolus only, 3 fungal (Cryptococcus, Trichophoton and Histoplasma) and 6 bacterial (Acaligenes, Bartonella, Azotobacter, Nitrsomonas, Salmonella and Pseudomonas) genera were isolated from guano whereas 5 fungal (Alternaria, Chrysosporium, Aspergillus, Scopulariopsis anf Exophilaand) and 4 bacterial (Bacillus, Listeria, Corynebacterium and Streptomycete) genera were mutual in bolus and guano testers. Seasonal differences were noted in occurrence of various fungal and bacterial genera. From bolus samples, 2 fungal Fusarium and Aspergillus and only 1 bacterial Bacillus genera was recorded all over the year while from guano Bacillus was the single genus with year round occurrence. Microbial analysis explained that Indian flying fox ejecta are an combination of beneficial as well as pathogenic microbes with its pH ranging from 6.7 to 7.4, high concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen that favors the seed germination, soil fertility and enhance root growth.



The research of Goveas et al., 2006 exposed greater nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus in the bolus than the guano of the P. giganteus. pergillus was the only genus recorded in all of the four

seasons. Seelan et al., 2008 experimental observation revealed twenty three species of bats out of which thirteen species were found to contain seventeen fungal isolates of the genus Aspergillus. The bacteriological analysis of bolus and guano of the Indian flying fox completed by Goveas et al., 2006 revealed the occurrence of Pseudomonas and Alcaligenes in guano, and Bacillus, Proteus and Klebsiella in bolus.



Evaluation and Conclusion:

Throughout this study, a total of 12 fungal genera signifying 9 families were isolated from bolus and guano samples of P. giganteus. These genera included Alternaria, Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Chrysosporium, Cryptococcus, Fusarium, Exophiala, Histoplasma, Penicillium, Scopulariopsis, Saccharomyces and Trichophyton.

Mineral configuration of bolus of Indian flying fox was examined in 4 seasonal samples. The pH of fruit bat bolus is nearby acidic to neutral ranges between 6.7 and 7.4. The supreme abundant elements in bolus are phosphorus and nitrogen whereas potassium is less ample.

It can be concluded from the present study that ejecta of the Pteropus giganteus is a collection of beneficial as well as pathogenic microbes. Nevertheless, it might be useful in enhancing fertility of the soil.



·         Darling, 1906. In Israel, with a review of the current status of histoplasmosis in the Middle East. Am. J. T. Med. Hyg., 26: 140-147

·         Gulraiz, T. L., Javid, A., Hussain, S. M., Shahbaz, M., & Daud, S. (2017). Microbial analysis of Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) ejecta collected from two public parks in Lahore, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 49(1).

·         Goveas, S.W., Miranda, E.C., Seena, S. and Sridhar, K.R., 2006. Observations on guano and bolus of Indian flying fox, Pteropusgiganteu. Curr. Sci. India., 90: 160-162.

Question No. 4

What is the purpose of portfolio development? What kind of information is required for a perfect portfolio?




Portfolio can be defined as,

Answer Portfolio

“An immense, thin, uniform collection made of free sheets of paper having collection of drawings or charts held by a person or an organization.” Or “A portfolio is an organized assemblage of articles and considerations that establishes evidence of student accomplishment of definite capabilities or values, conferring to a distinct set of moralities.”


Portfolio centered assessment is the main approaches that have revealed significant capacity in the instructor education programs. A certified portfolio is an illustrative set of documents that offers evidence of anybody‟s understanding, beliefs, attitudes and skills. It is a work in improvement that shows the evolution and modification of specialized and personal development. In the portfolio development constructed assessment, each student generates a portfolio that is modified by the talents of the student. The student accepts faculty and noble input at each phase of the process ensuing in a cooperative journey of mutual division between the scholar, the faculty and further students.



Purpose of Portfolio Development

For the following reasons, we form a portfolio:

§  The portfolio is planned to inspire  the student to become energetically involved in observing and imitating on their growth as professional.

§  The subjects of the portfolio reflect both theoretical and practical experiences that reveal the scholar‟s application of knowledge and expertise.

§  The portfolio agrees to students to prove mastery of the capabilities of the program.

§  It offers extra complete representation of the scholar‟s happiness, abilities and activities in noticeable evidences.

§  The portfolio is planned to be used as a constant instrument to inspire and guide future professional progress.

§  It boosts the scholar‟s administrative skills, consciousness of continuing educational needs, and self-assessment of development.

§  It is predictable that scholars will carry on developing their portfolios and as they imitate on their work and their education.

Required Information for Perfect Portfolio

In order to construct a portfolio following information is required:

Collecting of students artifacts:

Gathering manufactured article that determine the student's professional progress. Some of these articles will eventually become the portfolio items.

Selection and Identification of meaningful Information:

Reflecting and classifying artifacts that is at maximum relevant and meaningful to the student's purpose, opinions and thinking. These come to be the portfolio entries. The student also regulates the closing design of the portfolio, such as a notebook or definitely designed box.


Identifying the developing themes of the portfolio and start categorizing it.


Making a link among the selected articles and the aim of the portfolio. This is the intellectual stage that articulates the reflections.


Making each entry significant and meaningful by lettering roughly why each entry is comprised in the portfolio. This reflection bonds the individual entry to the complete portfolio document.


Presenting and debating the portfolio to program faculty in the end.


Question No. 5

What is perceived knowledge? Is it helpful or harmful for a person? Support your answer with logical arguments.



Knowledge can be defined as,

“Awareness or understanding gained by practice of a fact or any situation”


Perception can be defined as,

“Instantaneous or intuitive appreciation or gratitude by means of senses or mind, cognition, and thoughtful.”

Perceived Knowledge

The term perceived knowledge is used to refer to one's self-assessment or understanding of knowing the info required to evaluate.


Perception is the sequence of action by which we obtain information related to the world around us by our 5 senses. It is a dominant subject in the theory of knowledge. As we gain raw info related to the world everywhere from side to side by perception. It can also be taken that info and attempt to understand it. All the knowledge, though, is the consequent from this mutual root.

It‟s a fact that the one way we know the actual world is through our perceptual structure. Evidence about the real world comes to us first from end to end our sensory system like our ears, eyes, nose, skin and mouth. Following, these senses pass through our perceptual system.

Perceived Knowledge as Helpful or Harmful

After information passes through the regarding filter, one of three values kept on it. If it is somewhat we have cultured and is satisfying the requirements then we place a positive assessment on it. If it is somewhat we have cultured to obstruct our aptitude to meet our needs, a negative assessment is kept on it. If it neither helps us nor obstructs us in meeting our requirements, then we may keep it little or of no value on it and  it remains neutral.

For the reason that we all come to all situation with changed awareness and experience, and consequently different standards, our perceptions of the real world are unlike. Thus, we do not all live in the similar real world. We live our lives in our Perceived Worlds.


Our Perceived worlds are the reality for everyone. As they are made of perceptions, our Perceived worlds are:

§  Extremely subjective: based on one's culture, education, experience, gender, age, etc.

§  Unique

§  Subject to constant change:                   as fresh info, new experiences is equal to the new perceptions.

§  Frequently inaccurate: frequently our perceptions are selected. People can normally select to perceive people, spaces, and conditions by different ways.

Perception as Helpful

Perception plays an essential part in our five senses: being capable to touch, to see, to taste, to smell, and to hear. It is convoluted in the proprioception, which is the collection of senses that perceive changes in body positions and actions. Likewise, perception plays a role in different process like cognitive processes which are compulsory for the brain to process data, like identifying the face of somebody you know or noticing familiar fragrances.

Perception as Harmful

Perception could be harmful as many people think that perception is the reality. But the fact is that perception is not reality. Different people think differently about the same thing, so it means that they perceive in different ways. So perception could only be harmful if one perceives anything negatively a non-partial thing.

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